Spiked Rampion (Phyteuma Spicatum, L.)

The habitat of this plant is woods and thickets. The habit is erect. The stem is smooth and ribbed. The lower leaves are heart-shaped to egg-shaped or oblong, toothed, stalked, the stem-leaves spreading and bent back, stalkless, linear, lance-shaped. The bracts are linear. The flowers are in an oblong, terminal, solitary head, longer in fruit, with yellow flowers. The styles are long, and there are 2 stigmas. The capsule is 2-celled, opening by longitudinal valves below the middle. The plant is 1-3 ft. in height, flowering in May, June, and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Spreading Bell-Flower (Campanula Patula, L.)

The habitat of this plant is copses, thickets, and hedges. The habit is erect or rosette-like. The stem is rough, downy, slender, angled, the radical leaves inversely egg-shaped, oblong, stalked, scalloped, the stem-leaves linear, lance-shaped, wavy. The flowers are in an erect, loose, open panicle or corymb, branched, spreading, blue, rarely white, funnel-shaped, open, on long stalks. The corolla is 5-lobed to the middle, the lobes spreading. The calyx-tube is inversely conical, the segments toothed, awl-like, varying in width. The capsule is erect, inversely conical, the valves close under the lobes of the calyx. The height of the plant is 1-3 ft. It flowers in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Peach-Leaved Bell-Flower (Campanula Persici-Folia, L.)

The habitat of this plant is woods, plantations, and downs. The plant has the rosette habit. The rootstock is branched, creeping, with stolons. The stem is round, smooth, and bears few flowers. The radical leaves are stalked, inversely egg-shaped, the stem-leaves stalkless, linear, lance-shaped, blunt, toothed, long and narrow, leathery, with obscure nerves. The flowers are blue or white, few, in a raceme, large, solitary. The calyx-segments are entire, triangular, lance-shaped. The open corolla is as long as broad, the tube hemispherical, the lobes erect, short. The flower-stalk is stout, with 2 bracts at the base. The capsule is erect, egg-shaped, the pores large. The plant is 1-2 ft. in height, flowering in July, and is a herbaceous perennial or biennial.

Great Bell-Flower (Campanula Latifolia, L.)

The habitat of this plant is woods, copses, thickets, and bushy places. The habit is erect. The root-stock is stout and woody. The stem is stout, simple, leafy, slightly angular, furrowed, downy. The radical leaves are long-stalked, stiffly hairy, downy below, egg-shaped, heart-shaped below, the stem-leaves stalkless, bluntly toothed, oblong, egg-shaped. The flowers are large, blue or white, numerous, erect or partly drooping, in a raceme, with many large bracts or leaves. The stalks are i-flowered. The lobes of the corolla are narrow and long-pointed, smooth, hairy within. The tube of the calyx is broad, short, 5-ribbed, lance-shaped, finely toothed, smooth, with a long, narrow point. The capsule is short, erect, stalked, with basal pores. The plant is 3-4 ft. high, and flowers in July and August, being a herbaceous perennial.

Nettle-Leaved Bell-Flower (Campanula Tra-Chelium, L.)

The habitat of this plant is woods, copses, on dry soil, thickets and hedges, especially in the south. The plant has the pyramidal habit. The stout rootstock is short. The stem is usually simple, leafy, with stiff, reversed hairs, tall, angular. The leaves are all stalked, coarsely toothed, rough, with short hairs. The radical leaves are long-stalked, heart-shaped, the upper shortly-stalked, narrowed from the base, acute, egg-shaped, with a long, narrow point. The flowers are blue, 2-3, on each short stalk, in a raceme or panicle, the flowers single or numerous, erect or partly drooping, the uppermost flowers opening first. The corolla is large, truly bell-shaped, the lobes acute. The lobes of the calyx are entire, stiffly hairy, erect, triangular, lance-shaped. The capsule is drooping, with basal pores. The plant is 1-3 ft. in height, flowering from July to September, and is a herbaceous perennial.