This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this sedge is copses and damp places. The habit is sedge-like. The stem is slender, inclined, 3-angled. The leaves are channelled, narrow, as long as the stems, flat. The bracts are long, leaflike. The spike has a rough rachis, and the spikelets are all simple, the upper crowded, oblong, the lower remote (hence remota). The fruit is egg-shaped, lance-shaped, longer than the glumes, narrow to egg-shaped, pale, finely furrowed. The beak is broad, with toothed margins. The midrib of the glume does not reach the point. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this sedge is wet copses and marshes. The habit is sedge-like. The plant is slender, with a tufted rootstock and many stems, 3-angled, rough, graceful, leafy. The leaves are longer than the stems, limp, flat. The bracts are short or none. The spike is slender. The spikelets are numerous, the upper close, oblong-, erect or spreading-, those below loose, not distant. The glumes are egg-shaped, dark-brown, with green keel with white edges. The fruit is pale, stalkless, ribbed, spreading, longer than the glumes, blunt, with a long point. The beak is nearly entire, with rough edges. The nut is linear to oblong. The style does not fall. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering from June to August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is woods, shady places, marshy copses, and meadows. The habit is sedge-like. The stem is slender, leafy, 3-angled, rough above, wiry. The leaves are erect, softly sparsely hairy, flat, green. The spikes are blunt, pale-green. The small spikelet is erect, yellowish-red, the female rather nodding, close, 2-3, oblong, egg-shaped, shortly-stalked. The glumes are blunt-pointed, few, pale-brown, with white borders and a green midrib. The fruit is hairless, egg-shaped, oblong, blunt, convex both sides, veined. There is no beak. The nut is inversely egg-shaped, linear to elliptic, 3-angled. The plant is 9-18 in. in height, flowering from June to August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is damp woods. The habit is sedge-like. The stem is tall and leafy, 3-angled or rounded, smooth or rough. The leaves are broad, pale-green, flat. The bracts are leaflike, sheathed below, nearly as long as the flower-stalks. The fertile spike is long, drooping (hence pendula), nearly stalkless, curved, blunt, cylindrical, dense, the stalks enclosed by the bracts, the upper with male flowers above. The male are inclined, sometimes with male and female flowers, or female below only. The glumes are spreading, blunt, or divided nearly to the base, pale-brown, with a hairy awn, green midrib, pale ragged border. The fruit is hairless, swollen, overlapping, with a short, notched, 3-angled beak. The nut is short, broad, pale. The plant is 3-6 ft. high, flowering in May, and is a herbaceous perennial.