This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this orchid is copses and dry hedgebanks. The habit is typically flag-like. The rootstock is stout and creeping. The stem is flattened at the margin, angled. The leaves are green, foetid when bruised, limp. The scape is leafy. The flowers are blue or purple, livid. The stalks are not longer than the ovary. The spathes are long-pointed. The sepals are petaloid, lance-shaped to inversely egg-shaped, purple, or yellow. The petals and stigmas are yellow, spoon-shaped. The perianth is beardless, the segments bent back. The berries are rounded, orange-red, with a fleshy testa, the capsule club-shaped. The plant is 2-3 ft. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this species is open woods, amongst bracken, in the New Forest. The habit is similar to that of the last. The corm is about the size of a nut, egg-shaped, pointed, with bulbils below, with nearly parallel fibres, netted above, with long, narrow openings. The leaves are sword-shaped, bluish-green, slender. The sheaths are 2-edged. The scape is leafy. The spathes are lance-shaped, nearly equal. The flowers are in a spike, arranged all one side of the stalk, 4-8, red, changing to blue. The perianth is bent over, bell-shaped, the 3 upper segments spoon-shaped, the 3 lower inversely egg-shaped, paler, with purple veins. The tube is nearly 3 times the length of the ovary. The basal petal is acute, longer than the blunt lower lateral petal, the edges of the upper not covered by the 2 others. The stigmas are spoon-shaped, narrow below, widening- upwards, and fringed. The anther-stalks are longer than the anthers. The capsule is leathery, club-shaped, oval, notched, the 3 angles rounded. The seeds are winged. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering in July, and is a herbaceous perennial.