Red Helleborine (Cephalanthera Rubra, Rich.)

The habitat of this plant is woods and copses. The habit is erect. The stem is slender, red-tinted. The leaves are lance-shaped, acute, and the bracts are longer than the glandular, downy ovary. The flowers are open, few or many, purple or rose colour. The lip is white, with a purple border as long as the petals, with many wavy, longitudinal lines, the terminal lobe egg-shaped, lance-shaped. The sepals and petals have a long, narrow point. The point is 6-18 in. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.

True Military Orchis (Orchis Militaris, L.)

The habitat of this plant is chalky hills and woods. The habit is erect. The tubers are egg-shaped. The leaves are large, 3-5 in., oblong, blunt, concave, without spots. The bracts are short, 1-nerved. The flowers are bright or pale purple, in an oblong dense spike. The sepals and petals have a narrow point. The petals are pale purple or white. The lip is pale, with raised rough points, 3-lobed, the lobes oblong-, crimson, with purple dots. The basal lobes are narrow, the lateral lobes linear, the middle broader, suddenly widened, 2 - lobed, with an intermediate tooth, entire at the tip, broad. The helmet, formed by the hooded sepals which include the petals, is rose-coloured. The spur is about half as long as the ovary, bent down, blunt. The plant is 1-1 1/2 ft. high, flowering in May and June, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Monkey Orchis (Orchis Simia, Lam.)

The habitat of this plant is chalk)' hills, woods on calcareous soil. The plant is not so large as the last, more slender. The bracts are minute. The lip is long, narrow, 1-veined, with an intermediate bristle-like tooth. The lobes are equal in size and resemble in form the legs, arms, and tail of a monkey (hence Si?nia), and are rose-purple, linear, long, entire. The middle lobes are very narrow. The sepals are acute, meeting to form an egg-shaped hood. The helmet is rose-colour outside, paler within. The spur is half as long as the ovary. The plant is 6-12 in. high, and flowers in May, being a herbaceous perennial.

Lizard Orchis (Orchis Hircina, Crantz)

The habitat of this plant is copses, bushy chalk hills, and grassy places. The habit is erect, the stem tall. The tubers are egg-shaped. The leaves are mostly radical, oblong, blunt. The bracts exceed the flowers. The flowers are large, purplish-white, loose, in a long spike, with a hircine, goatlike (hence hircina), fetid scent. The sepals and petals form a green hood, the lateral sepals conniving. The lip is 3-lobed, white, with purple spots below, spiral in bud, the lateral lobes wavy, narrow, the middle broad, green, twisted. The spur is short and conical. The pollen-glands are united. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Orchis Cruenta, Muell

This rare species is found in Cumberland and Westmorland. It is closely allied to O. latifolia, but differs in having the leaves broadest in the middle, short, blunt. The plant is 7-12 in. in height, and flowers in June and July, being a herbaceous perennial.