This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is copses, wet rocky places, damp bushy and stony places. The habit is erect. The stem is branched, tall, with numerous large leaves below, solid, finely furrowed. The leaves are twice or thrice pinnate, with lobes each side of a common stalk, 3-5-lobed, and the stipules have the auricles bent back. The flowers are drooping, in a panicle, with spreading branches. The flower-stalks have spreading branches. The carpels are elliptical. The anthers have a point at the tip. The plant is 2-4 ft. high, and flowers in July and August. It is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is plantations, and the plant is rare. The habit is that of the Wood Anemone, with a horizontal root-stock. The leaves are 5-lobed. The scape bears an involucre of deeply-cut, ternate bracts. The flowers are yellow, drooping, solitary or two together. The 5-7 sepals are elliptic, externally downy. The carpels are downy, pointed, not feathery. The plant is 4-6 in. in height. It flowers in April and May, and is a herbaceous perennial.
This species is an alien introduced from Italy, and scarcely naturalized, being found in plantations. The habit is similar to the last, the rounded rootstock tuberous. The leaves are thrice-ternate, stalked, and deeply cut. The involucre of bracts is similar to the leaves. The flowers are blue, solitary, erect. There are many (10-14) lance-shaped sepals. The carpels are not feathery, but pointed. The Blue Mountain Anemone is 4-6 in. in height. It flowers in April. The plant is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is woods, plantations, and thickets in S. and E. England. The habit is erect. The stems are leafless, smooth below and downy above, below scarred. The leaves are stalked, with lobes arising from a centre, and the lateral ones also lobed, bent back, the lower stalked, the upper leaves having large sheaths and becoming bracts above. The flowers are numerous, green, drooping, the sepals green, blunt, with purple margin. The petals are not as long as the stamens. The follicles are wrinkled and glandular, with an awl-like style. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, and flowers from March to May. It is an evergreen perennial.
In the south of England this plant is naturalized in thickets, and occurs in ornamental plantations, parks, and old gardens. The plant has an erect habit, with a tuberous rhizome or underground stem. The radical leaves are rounded, on long stalks, the lobes 5-7, blunt, deeply cut, the lobes oblong, linear, arising from a common centre or palmate. The stem-leaves are in whorls, and form an involucre of stalkless bracts below the flowers, which are single and yellow, cup-shaped. There are 5-8 oblong sepals, which are petaloid, overlapping and falling. The small petals are clawed, and 2-lipped. There are numerous stamens, longer than the petals. The carpels are stalked, 5-6, the follicles being separate, with numerous egg-shaped seeds. The plant is 4-6 in. in height, flowering from January to April, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is shady places, near streams, banks of rivers and brooks. The habit is tufted. The black root of 2 knobs is spindle-shaped. The stem is erect, simple, slightly downy. The leaves are much divided, with deeply-cut segments arising from a common centre, 3-5-lobed, the upper ones stalkless. The leaf-stalk is enlarged below. The flowers are purple, irregular, in a raceme. The petals small, 2-5, the two upper swollen above, forming spurs which are bent down, horizontal, on long curved stalks, the lip large. The sepals are large, coloured, the upper enclosing the rest and curved back, helmet-shaped. The erect flower-stalks are downy. The filaments are hairy, with blunt-pointed wings, enlarged below. The stamens are numerous, the anthers greenish-black. The carpels are spreading, the follicles (3-5) cylindrical, beaked, and many-seeded, the seeds black, triangular, wrinkled. The plant is 1-2 ft. in height, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this species is woods, mountainous pastures, mountainous limestone tracts, calcareous woods, copses on limestone. The habit is erect. The stem is simple or branched. The radical leaves are on long stalks, 2-3 ternate, with lobes each side of a common stalk, the leaflets smooth, egg-shaped, 3-lobed, with a long point, coarsely toothed. The flowers are white, in a long simple raceme, the sepals petaloid, blunt, falling, the petals small, as long as the stamens. The flower-stalks are downy. The anther-stalks are swollen above. The berries are black, egg-shaped, many-seeded. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering in May and June, and is a herbaceous perennial.