This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is bushy places, hedges, heaths, and banks. The habit is arching-, prostrate. The stem is nearly round. The prickles are very slender. The leaflets are thin, with simple, shallow teeth, rather thinly hairy below, the terminal rounded, inversely egg-shaped, with a short, abrupt, blunt point. The panicle is very loose below, forming a raceme above, with long, wide-spreading to erect flower-stalks, with rather few, very slender, turned-down prickles, and slender, unequal acicles, bristles, and stalked glands. The plant flowers in July and August, and is a deciduous shrub.
This Scottish plant is stouter than the last. The habit is low, arched. The stem is angled, with few hairs and acicles. The armature is stronger, and more unequal, both on the stem and rachis. The leaves are 3-5-lobed. The leaflets are large, with the terminal leaflet with a long narrow point, and partly lobed, coarsely toothed. The panicle is pyramidal, broad, straggling, and the rachis is wavy, with many unequal prickles. The large flowers are cup-shaped, the narrow petals rose colour, the stamens white, the sepals reflexed in flower and fruit.
The habitat of this species is woods. The habit is arching, prostrate. The stem is stout. The prickles are long, nearly equal, confined to the angles. The leaflets are almost leathery, large, coarsely and irregularly toothed, the terminal one broadly oval, with a long narrow point and heart-shaped base. The panicle is strongly developed, very compound, with large broad leaves, with a round-topped, ultra-axillary part, with long, distant, strongly-ascending branches like the secondary panicle below. The rachis and flower-stalk have dense, grey felt, few or many acicles, and short-stalked glands. The sepals are reflexed in flower and fruit. The plant is intermediate between R. pulcherrimus and R. anglosaxnnicus, but the leaflets are broader and not so parallel-sided as in the latter.
The habitat of this species is bushy places and hedges. The stem is smooth, shining as if varnished, with numerous, scattered pricklets. The prickles are strong. The leaves are 3-5-lobed, with 3 lobes radiating from a common centre and 2 laterals. The leaflets are thick, leathery, coarsely and irregularly toothed, with a grey felt below, the terminal leaflet long, narrow, oval, with nearly parallel sides, a short point, and notched base. The panicle is narrow above, with strongly ascending 1-3-flowered branches, the axillary leaves large.
Rubus melanoxylon, Muell. & Wirtg. - The habitat of this species is moist bushy places and heaths. The stem and panicle rachis have a blackish-brown or dark-purple bloom. The armature is partly strong but very variable, some prickles being stout-based. The leaflets have close, even teeth, the terminal one narrowed to a short point, evenly toothed. The panicle is long, nearly cylindrical. The rachis has very unequal acicles, bristles, and stalked glands, the largest prickles long, and strongly bent down. The plant resembles R. mucronatus, R. villicaidis, and R. rosaceus.