Avens (Geum Urbanum, L.)

The habitat of this plant is thickets, borders of copses, hedges, and hedgebanks. The habit is that of a rosette plant. The radical leaves are long-stalked, with lobes each side of a common stalk, the terminal leaflet large, rounded, scalloped, lobed, the lateral ones stalkless, oblong. The stem-leaves are made up of 3 leaflets, variable. The stipules are large, lobed, and cut. The flowers are small, erect, yellow. The petals are spreading, inversely egg-shaped, and the flower-stalk is slender. The achenes form a head which is not stalked, the upper joint of the awn being short and smooth. The achenes are roughly hairy and spreading. The receptacle is roughly hairy. It is 1-3 ft. high, and flowers from June to August, being a herbaceous perennial.

Water Avens (Geum Rivale, L.)

The habitat of this plant is damp woods. The habit is that of a rosette plant. The lower part of the stem is clothed with bent-back hairs, and it is very downy above. The radical and stem-leaves are as in the last, with more numerous segments, the lateral larger. The stipules are egg-shaped, small, toothed. The flowers are drooping, purplish-brown, with darker veins, larger than the last, the petals are notched, broadly inversely egg-shaped or heart-shaped, the claw wedge-shaped. The purple calyx lobes are reddish-brown, downy, with a long, narrow point. In fruit it is erect, the lobes closely pressed. The stalk of the ovary is long. The lower joint of the style equals the long, hairy, upper joint, the point smooth. The achenes form a head which is stalked. The plant is 1 ft. or more in height. It flowers in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Geum intermediun, Ehrh. = rivale X urbanum. - The habitat of this cross is damp woods. The habit is the rosette habit. The leaves are as in the last two. The stipules are round, toothed. The flowers are erect or drooping, larger than in Geum urbanum. The flowers are paler and more yellow than in Water Avens. The purple calyx is intermediate, not turned back in fruit, but wide-spreading. The stalk of the ovary is short, or it is stalkless. The lower joint of the style is longer than the upper, which is hairy, with long, smooth point. It is 1-2 ft. high. The fruit is stalkless. The plant flowers in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Downy Rose (Rosa Villosa, L.)

The habitat of this rose is thickets and hedges. The habit is that of an erect shrub, with straight then arching branches. It is a large bush. The prickles are uniform, slender, and nearly straight, and serve as a protection. The leaflets are acute, with usually doubly-toothed margin, with few or no glands, softly downy. The flowers are deep rose colour on short flower-stalks. The erect sepals, lance-shaped, convex at the back in fruit, are quite persistent, and densely glandular, slightly pinnate. They are unequal, due to their arrangement in the bud. The corolla is fringed with hairs and glandular. There is no disk. The fruit is round, densely prickly or naked, bright-red, ripe in August. Downy Rose is 3-6 ft., and flowers in June and July. It is a deciduous shrub.