This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is thickets, plantations, shady places, moist hedg-es, and waste places. The habit is erect. The stem is four-angled, without wings, smooth below, simple. The root-stock is tuberous, nodose. The leaves are egg-shaped, heart-shaped to triangular, acutely and doubly toothed, the lower teeth large, with strong nerves, shortly-stalked. The flowers are small, green or reddish-brown, in loose cymes, with a scale or staminode under the upper lip, notched, wedge-shaped. The sepals have a narrow membranous margin, and are egg-shaped, roundish.
The tube is pale greenish-purple. The bracts are linear, acute, leafy below, the slender erect flower-stalks glandular below. The capsule is broadly egg-shaped, with a narrow point. The plant is 1-3 ft. in height, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
- he habitat of this plant is shaded places, moist situations, and way-sides in the S. and E. of England. The habit is as in the last. The stem is downy or hairy, glandular, simple, blunt, 4-angled. The rootstock is creeping. The leaves are downy both sides, scalloped, toothed, wrinkled, egg-shaped, triangular, the leaf-stalk not winged. The flowers are dull purple in long loose panicles, corymbose, on slender flower-stalks. The corolla has the upper lip divided. The staminode is round, entire. The membranous margin of the downy sepals is broad. The bracts are leaflike. The capsule is egg-shaped or nearly round, with a long, narrow point. The plant is 2-4 ft. in height, flowering from June till August. It is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is moist woods and thickets. The habit is prostrate, then ascending. The stem is branched, spreading, downy all round. The leaves are stalked, broadly egg-shaped, inversely heart-shaped, toothed. The flowers are pale blue, few, in loose, short racemes, alternate, with broad, lance-shaped (acute) sepals. The capsule is large, rounded, flat, longer than the calyx, smooth, the margin rather scalloped, fringed with hairs. The plant is 6-20 in. in length, flowering from May till July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is alpine or sub-alpine woods. The habit is erect and branched above. The leaves are smooth or finely downy, linear, lance-shaped, entire. The flowers are very small, deep yellow, nearly erect, axillary, arranged on one side of the stalk, or in distant pairs. The corolla is twice as long as the calyx, the lip not closed, the lower bent down, and the tube curved, the flowers unsymmetrical. The bracts are linear, lance-shaped, entire. The calyx-teeth are spreading. The capsule is not bent down. The plant is 6-24 in. in height. It flowers in July and August, and is a herbaceous annual.
The habitat of this species is woods, copses, thickets, and fields in the E. counties. The habit is as in the last. The stem is erect, rigid, blunt, 4-angled, downy above. The leaves are narrow, linear, lance-shaped, acute, spreading, entire, with netted veins below. The flowers are yellow, with purple tips, in dense, oblong, 4-sided, overlapping spikes. The bracts are overlapping, finely fringed, pink, rose or purple, heart-shaped, the margins enclosing the calyx, folded, with a long point, bent back. The tube is bent, longer than the calyx, with closed lips. The sepals are acute and unequal, short, the upper longer, awl-shaped. The capsule is longer than the calyx. The plant is 8-24 in. in height, and flowers from July to October, being a herbaceoushemi-parasitic annual.