Fen Ragwort (Senecio Paludosus, L.)

The habitat of this plant is fen ditches. The habit is the rosette habit more or less. The rootstock is short. The stem is erect, hollow, woolly, slightly cottony, branched above, leafy, straight. The leaves are stalkless, undivided, cottony below, narrow, oblong, lance-shaped, tapering, coarsely and sharply toothed. The flowerheads are yellow with spreading rays, on long stalks, with bracts in loose, spreading, simple or compound, terminal corymbs, the rays consisting of 13-16 narrow florets. The involucre is broadly bell-shaped, the outer phyllaries awl-like, long, the inner blunt. The fruit is hairless. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Marsh Fleawort (Senecio Palustris, Hook.)

The habitat of this plant is fen ditches in the E. counties. The habit is as in the last. The stem is stout, erect, tall, downy or woolly, hollow, leafy, much branched, corymb-like above. The leaves are undivided, or nearly entire, half-clasping, oblong- to broadly lance-shaped, the lower wavy, toothed, blunt or acute. The flowerheads are pale, bright-yellow, erect, numerous, crowded in compound corymbs, broadly bell-shaped, short like the stalk, hairy. The heads have spreading rays. There are no scales below in the involucre. The bracts are slender and numerous. The ray-florets are short. The fruit is ribbed without hairs. The plant is 2-4 ft. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous biennial.

Meadow Thistle (Cnicus Pratensis, Huds

Cirsium anglicum, D.C. = Cirsiuin britannicutn, Scop.). - The habitat of this plant is wet or boggy meadows, marshes and bogs. The habit is erect, more or less of the rosette type. The plant is cottony. The roots are fibrous. The stem is simple, without wings, round in section, leafless above, a few scaly bracts springing from the creeping rhizome. The leaves are soft, broad, lance-shaped, with wavy teeth, fringed with bristles, or more or less divided, or 2-3 fid. The lower leaves are long-stalked, the lobes being angular, and the upper are half-clasping-, auricled. The flowerheads are usually solitary, or 2-3, cottony. The florets are dark-purple. The involucre is cottony, hemispherical, with lance-shaped, closely-pressed bracts, with long, spinous points, the outer blunt-pointed, the inner slender, purple, narrow-pointed. The fruit is pale, slender, smooth, with a dirty-white pappus. The plant is 10-18 in. in height, flowering from June to August, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Taraxacum palustre, D.C. (= T. paludosum, Sch.). - The habitat of this species is moist moorlands, damp places. In this plant, which has the rosette habit, the leaves are dull-green, runcinate, deeply divided, with wavy teeth, the lobes broad. The outer phyllaries are ovate to long-pointed, closely pressed, spreading or erect, the inner simple at the tip. The fruit is pale-yellow or brown, muricate at the top. The plant is 4-12 in. in height, flowering between June and September. It is a herbaceous perennial.