White Beak Rush (Rhynchospora Alba, Vahl)

The habitat of this plant is spongy bogs, turfy bogs, wet meadows. The habit is the sedge habit. The rootstock is short. The plant is somewhat creeping. The stems are slender, 3-angled above. The leaves are somewhat bristle-like, channelled, very narrow, linear. The flowers are in a compact corymb, terminal and axillary, flat-topped, on long stalks. The spikelets are pale-flowered, crowded, white (hence alba) or pale-brown, as long as the outer bracts. There are 2 stamens, with slender anther-stalks. The style has no teeth at the base. The bristles have bent-down teeth. The glumes are oblong to lance-shaped, long-pointed, membranous, keeled. The fruit is inversely egg-shaped, narrowed below, equalling the swollen tubercle (hence Rhynchospora). The plant is 6-18 in. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Black Bog Rush (Schcenus Nigricans, L.)

The habitat of this rush is turfy bogs and wet moors. The plant has the sedge habit. The rootstock is stout, short, branched, the root with strong, black fibres. The stems are round in section, naked, in dense, hard tufts, with matted sheaths, blackish-brown, smooth, shining scales ending in bristlelike, erect leaves, shorter than the stem and leaves, wiry, leafless above. The leaves are round in section, the margins convolute. The 5-10 spikelets are in a terminal, inversely egg-shaped spike, much shorter than the bract, dark-red-brown, or black, shining. The bracts are bristle-like. The spikelets are erect, linear to oblong. The glumes are irregularly 2-ranked, oblong to lance-shaped, more or less acute, with a rough keel. The bristles have ascending teeth above, and are short and rough. There are 3 stigmas. The anthers are pointed. The nut is small, egg-shaped, white. The plant is 6-24 in. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Dioecious Sedge (Carex Dioica, L.)

The habitat of this sedge is spongy bogs and moorland. The plant has the sedge habit. The rootstock is creeping and stoloniferous. The stems are round in section, finely-furrowed, wiry. The leaves are bristle-like, smooth, round in section. The spikelets have no bracts, and are narrow, cylindrical, the fertile ones dense, egg-shaped. The glumes are egg-shaped, brown, soon falling. There may be male spikelets below. The glumes are numerous. The fruit is bent down, plano-convex, erect or spreading, stalkless, egg-shaped, beaked, toothed at the border, ribbed. The nut is oval, roundish, lenticular, chestnut-brown. The plant is 4-10 in. high, flowering in May and June, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Daval's Sedge (Carex Davalliana, Sm.)

The habitat of this sedge is bogs. The habit is the grass habit with a tufted root. The stem is rough, slender, erect. The leaves are rough, bristle-like, flat. The plant is dioecious. There is a single terminal spikelet, oblong. The male flower has very narrow, oblong glumes, In the female the)- are egg-shaped, with a long point, chestnut, with no bracts. The fruit is reflexed, stalkless, beaked, lance-shaped, egg-shaped, with rough angles above. The stigmas are 2. The nut is oblong. The plant is 4-6 in. in height. It flowers in May and June, and is a herbaceous perennial.