Carex Caespitosa, L

This species has been reported from Yorkshire, but needs confirmation, according to Mr. G. C. Druce.

Common Sedge (Carex Goodenovii, Gay = C. Vulgaris, Fr. - C. Caespitosa, Sm. Non L.)

The habitat of this species is damp places, marshes, and wet meadows. The plant has the sedge habit. The rootstock is tufted or creeping. The stem is 3-sided, rough above, rigid, short and curved, or long, slender, and erect. The leaves are slender, narrow, erect, not keeled, short, bent-back. The spikelets are erect, close or distant. There are 1-2 male, 3-4 female, which are stalkless, cylindrical. The glumes are dark, blunt, overlapping, all the same colour, purple, or with a green midrib and slender keel, pale-green, not so long as the fruit. The fruit is elliptic, plano-convex, blunt, green or olive, with purple tinge, many-veined, pitchy, flattened, with slender nerves only at the base sometimes. The beak is stout, round, entire, smooth. The bracts are leaflike and have no auricles or sheaths. The nut is round, blunt, broader than long, lenticular, rarely 3-sided. The plant is 9-24 in. high, flowering between June and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Water Sedge (Carex Aquatilis, Wahl.)

The habitat of this plant is bogs and marshes, alpine bogs, riversides, watery places. The plant has the sedge habit. The rootstock is tufted, creeping, and stoloniferous. The stems are stiff, 3-angled with convex faces, stout, polished, leafy below. The leaves are long, erect, the margin rolled inwards when dry, the sheaths leafy, not webbed. The 3-6 spikelets are erect, cylindric, slender, stalked below, the males (1-3) are slender, the fertile spikelets long, narrow below, the lower stalked. The glumes are oblong or egg-shaped, short, blunt, dark, narrower than the fruit, purple, with a pale midrib. The fruit is yellowish-green, somewhat rounded, egg-shaped or inversely so, flattened, pale, smooth, nerveless, larger than the glumes, lenticular or 3-sided. The nut is oblong, narrowed below, with a short, slender beak. The plant is 1-4 ft. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Carex spiculosa, Fr. var. Hebridensis, A. Benn. - This variety has no rough prolongation of the midrib of the glume, which is characteristic of the type.

Carex mageilatiica, Lam. (= C. irrigua, Hoppe). - The habitat of this species is spongy bogs in the N. The plant has the sedge habit. The plant is creeping. The stems are more or less smooth. The leaves are flat, broad, short, hardly bluish-green, linear, smooth at the edge, except near the tip. The fertile spikelets are 2-3, drooping, on long stalks, dense, oblong, a few male below. The lower glumes are narrow, with a long point, the upper glumes broader and shorter, purple throughout, longer than the fruit, egg-shaped to lance-shaped, acute. The bracts are auricled, leaflike, nearly flat, broad. The fruit is swollen, round to egg-shaped, pale, broadest below the middle, flattened, faintly-ribbed, the beak short and entire. The nut is elliptic, triangular, pale, beaked. The plant is 1 ft. or more in height. It flowers in June, and is a herbaceous perennial.