This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this species is waste places. The stem is prostrate below, then ascending, branched. The lower part of the spike-like panicle is barren, and there are 6 spikes on a branch. The glumes of the fertile florets have a wing on the keel which has blunt teeth, and is many-veined. There are several rudimentary florets. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering from June to July, and is a herbaceous annual.
This species is an occasional escape from gardens, and is cultivated in England. It is naturalized in Guernsey. The spikelets are few, ovate, large, many-flowered. It is 1 1 1/2 ft. high, flowering in May and June, and is a herbaceous annual.
Festuca ciliata, Danth. (= F. barbata, Gaud. = F. Danthonii, A. & G.). - This plant is a casual near Brighton. The leaves are rolled inwards. The upper sheath nearly reaches the long, narrow, erect, close panicle. The glumes are very unequal, fringed with hairs (hence ciliata). The plant is 6-9 in. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous annual.
The habitat of this plant is fields and waste places, cultivated ground. The root is fibrous. The stems are erect, smooth, leafy. The leaves are flat, downy, broad, limp, ribbed. The sheaths are flattened, smooth or downy. The panicle is very loose, open, drooping, with few long branches, horizontal or drooping, in half whorls. The spikelets are more or less solitary, linear, lance-shaped, the florets distant. They have long awns, and are nodding and green. The empty glumes are long, narrow, the upper twice as long, the flowering glumes are very narrow, ending in a long, straight awn, with 7 ribs, equally distant, the margins transparent. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous annual.
The habitat of this plant is dry places, sandy waste places. It is rough above, smooth below. The stems are rigid, from an ascending base, smooth, leafy. The leaves are narrow, flat, hairy. The sheaths have the hairs turned back, and are round in section. The ligule is short and blunt. The panicle is very loose, open, erect, with few, short, hardly divided, erect branches, oblong, flattened, appressed. The rachis is slender and rough (like the pedicels). The spikelets are dull-green, with a smooth rachilla. The spikelets are linear, lance-shaped. The florets are distant, linear, more or less cylindrical. The lower empty glumes are awl-like, half as long as the upper, which are linear. The flowering glumes are narrow, rough, with 7 close, lateral nerves, the intermediate rib faint, the tip and margins transparent. The awn is slender, not longer than the florets. There are 2 stamens. The plant is 6-12 in. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous annual.
This grass is found in this country in corn- and clover-fields, being introduced with seeds and foreign grain and hay. It has become naturalized in many parts south of Fife. The root is creeping, fibrous. The stems are smooth. The leaves are hairy below, flat, short. The sheaths are hairy and grooved. The ligule is blunt. The panicle is compound, pyramidal, spreading, drooping, with branches horizontal at length, 5-7-divided, long, roughish, slender, with a few spikelets towards the apex. The spikelets are lance-shaped, linear. The lower flower-stalks are branched, pointed, green or dull-violet. The rachilla is smooth. The empty glumes are ovate to oblong, with a rough keel, the upper largest, acute, or with a short awn. The flowering glumes are overlapping at first, as long as the straight awn. The lower palea is 7-ribbed, with 2 prominent ribs near the margin and sides. The top of the upper glume is halfway to the top of the fourth floret. The anthers are 4 times as long as broad. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering from June to August, and is a herbaceous annual.