This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this grass is marshes and bogs. The plant has the grass habit. The stems are erect, slender, smooth, polished. The leaves are broad, short, flat, the lower on the barren shoots slender, narrower, the margins convolute, nearly smooth. The ligule is short, the uppermost blunt. The panicle is narrow, erect, close, pale-purple and green. The glumes are lance-shaped, with a rough keel, one 3-ribbed. The empty glumes are oblong to lance-shaped, longer than the flowering glume, the lower long-pointed, the upper notched, acute, twice as long as the hairs, the awn straight, from below the middle of the flowering glume. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
This plant has the grass habit. It is tufted. The stem is erect. The leaves are slender. The upper ligule is long. The panicle is close. The glumes are lance-shaped, folded at the tip, longer than in the last, with a long narrow point, rough on the back, with 1-2 lateral ribs longer than the palea, notched, the lower with an awn of equal length, attached below the middle, or near the base, with very unequal hairs, not so long as the palea. The young spikelets are purplish-tinged. The plant is 1 1/2 -2 ft. high, flowering in July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this species is stream-sides, marshy districts, wet meadows, and watery places. The plant has the grass habit. The root is creeping. The stems are prostrate below, smooth, shining, leafy, softly hairy at the nodes. The leaves are broad, rough at the edge, the uppermost horizontal when the plant is in flower, bluish-green. The sheaths are flattened, nearly smooth. The ligule is blunt, torn. The panicle is effuse, spreading, with wavy branches, light-green, enclosed in sheath of uppermost leaf, loose, few-flowered, branches half-whorled, hair-like, wavy. There are imperfect ovaries in the upper part, fertile ovaries in the lower enclosed part. The spikelets are half-oval, with a keel fringed with hairs, with 3 stamens, rigid, translucent, smooth, rough, pale-green. The plant is 2-3 ft. high, flowering between August and October, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this grass is margins of peaty pools. The stem is erect and slender. The leaves are thread-like, folded. The sheaths are smooth. The ligule is linear to lance-shaped. The panicle is spreading, drooping at the extremity. The awn is bent, twisted below, proceeds from the base of the palea, and is longer than the latter. The flower-stalk of the second floret is equal to half its length. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this species is sandy soil, sandy heaths, and waste places in the south and east. It has the typical grass habit. The root is fibrous. The stem is largely prostrate, the leaves are flat, smooth, narrow, the sheaths also smooth, with a hairy border. The ligule is short. There are 3-fingered, wavy, channelled spikes with spikelets, with one flower, in pairs, turned all one side. The spikelets are purplish, stalked, one stalk longer than the other. The empty glumes are hairy, and the flowering' glume has no awn. The fruit is compressed or flattened at the border. The plant is 6-19 in. high. Flowers are to be found in July and August. It is a herbaceous annual.