Toad Rush (Juncus Bufonius, L.)

The habitat of this species is moist places, marshy places. The habit is the rush habit. The plant is very pale in colour. The stems are erect or ascending, with forked branches, leafy, slender, septate. The leaves are few, bristle-like, with only one leaf on the stem as a rule, and are channelled above, with short sheaths. The cyme is repeatedly forked, the flowers pale-green, arranged all one side, solitary, or distant, or clustered, stalkless, the branches short or long, and wavy. There may be 2-4 lateral, open, hexandrous flowers, the terminal ones cleistogamic and triandrous. The blunt membranous bracts are small. The perianth-segments are lance-shaped, longer than the capsule, unequal. The capsule is blunt, oblong, inversely ovoid, pale. The seeds are roundly oval. The plant is 4-8 in. in height, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Loose-Flowered Rush (Juncus Effusus, L.)

The habitat of this plant is marshy ground and moist places. The plant has the rush habit. It forms circular, densely-matted tufts. The stems are soft, green, with fine furrows. The leaves are reduced to sheaths, absent, or very small, and slender, at the top of the sheathing scales. The pith is continuous. The sheaths are dull brown, not inflated. The barren and fertile stems are awl-like. The flowers are in a loose compound or dense panicle. The perianth-segments are lance-shaped, longer than the capsule, olive-green. The anthers are oval, short, oblong, with 3 or 6 stamens. The capsule is inversely ovate, notched, not blunt-pointed. The seeds are very small and yellowish-brown. The plant is 1-3 ft. in height, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Common Rush (Juncus Conglomerate, L.)

The habitat of this plant is marshy ground, wet places. The plant has the rush habit. The stems are softly, finely-furrowed. The pith is continuous. The leaves, if any, are as in the last. The cymes are dense, more or less round. The perianth-segments are lance-shaped, tinged with brown, and longer than the capsule. There are 3 stamens. The anthers are long, linear. The capsule is mu-cronate, inversely ovate, notched. The plant is 1-3 ft. in height, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Lesser Jointed Rush (Juncus Bulbosus, L. = J. Supinus, Moench)

The habitat of this plant is bogs and wet places. The Lesser Jointed Rush has the rush habit. The rootstock is usually tuberous (hence bulbosus). The stem is slender, erect, prostrate or sometimes floating, round in section, with limp, straggly branches and obscure joints. The leaves are bristle-like, slender, faintly-jointed within, somewhat channelled. The flowers are in nearly simple, terminal cymes, irregular, long', with few, distant, nearly erect clusters. The flowers are often viviparous. The perianth-segments are equal, acute, the inner 3 rather blunt, nearly as long- as the capsule. The bracts are membranous, acute, nearly as long as the flower. There are 3 stamens, the anthers as long as their stalks. The capsule is oblong, pale-brown, very blunt, blunt-pointed. The plant is 3-10 in. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.