This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is spongy bogs and Sphagnum swamps. The habit is the orchid habit. The plant is an epiphyte. The stem is 5-angled, swollen, sheathed, with white scales below, which give rise to a new plant. The leaves are few, fringed with cellular bulbils giving rise to new plants, and leaves put in the ground serve the same end. They are 3-5, inversely egg-shaped, oval, blunt, concave. The flowers are numerous, in a long raceme, with small bracts, on twisted, ultimate stalks, and are yellowish-green. The sepals are egg-shaped, spreading, 2, turned upwards. The petals are linear to oblong, bent backwards, the lip is superior, as long as the petals, 3-veined, erect, acute, concave, embracing the column below. The plant is 1-4 in. high, flowering between July and September, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is spongy bogs. The plant has the orchid habit, and is an epiphyte on Sphagnum. The stem is 5-angled, leafless above, swollen, sheathed with scales below, with a large, egg-shaped bulb below. The leaves are oblong to lance-shaped, keeled, elliptic, acute, stalked. The flowers are pale-yellowish-green, ascending, in a loose spike. The sepals are lance-shaped. The petals are linear, the lip oblong to inversely egg-shaped, blunt-pointed. The bracts are small. The plant is 4-8 in. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant provides leaf-mould on which it lives. There are no true roots. The rhizome consists of short, fleshy, thick, whitish branches, coral-like (hence corallorhiza). Myco-rhiza, a fungus attached to the rhizome, does the duty of root-hairs, converting the nutriment in the humus to the use of the plant. The plant is a saprophyte. The stems are slender. The sheaths are loose, reddish-brown. The leaves are brown, lance-shaped. The flowers are 4-8, yellow, in a loose spike, on short stalks. The lip is oblong, white, with a few purple spots or tubercles, with 3 equal lobes. The sepals and petals are lance-shaped, egg-shaped, acute. The sepals are olive-green, the lateral bent down. The petals are narrower. The spur is short, or there may not be one. The plant is 6-12 in. high, flowering between June and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this orchid is bogs. The plant has the orchid habit. The stem is devoid of hairs. The tubers are several, cylindrical. The radical leaves are linear-oblong, narrow, lance-shaped. The flowers are white, in a spiral series, all one side, in a loose, slender spike, many-flowered, downy, with a large lip. The column and lid are acute. The intermediate processes are lance-shaped, acute. The plant is 6-18 in. high, and is in flower in July and August, being a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this species is boggy places. The habit is erect. The tubers are cylindrical. The stem is thick, smooth, with numerous bracts or leaves, the lower lance-shaped, narrow. The spike is dense, downy and glandular, with flowers in 3 series or rows. The sepals and petals are equal, the lateral sepals united at the base. The flowers are fragrant, white, the lip tongue-shaped, and narrowed below the tip, which is bent back and scalloped. The plant is 6-10 in. in height. The flowers are found in August and September. It is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is wet meadows and bogs, marshes, ballast heaps at Hartlepool. The plant has the erect orchid habit. The 2 tubers are round, not divided. The stem is round, grooved, the leaves are lance-shaped, unspotted, with a long point. The flowers are bright-reddish-purple, in a loose spike. The bracts are 3-veined, and coloured, as long as the ovary. The sepals and petals are blunt. The lip is as broad as long, and the lateral sepals are turned back. The lip is 3-lobed, the lateral lobes turned back, large, scalloped, the middle lobe absent or shorter. The spur is blunt, half as long as the ovary. The plant is 1-3 ft. high. It flowers in May and June, and is a herbaceous perennial.
Orchis incarnata, L - The habitat of this orchid is marshes. The habit is as in the last. The stem is hollow. The leaves are lance-shaped, acute, narrowed from a broad base, unspotted, approaching the stem, erect, the tip hooded, hollow. The bracts usually exceed the flowers. The flowers are larger, purplish to flesh-colour, the lip 3-lobed, the border turned down, scalloped, the spur awl-like, shorter than the ovary, the 2 lateral sepals spreading, the middle one and the petal meeting together. The plant is in flower in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
Differs in having the flowers pale flesh-colour, the lobes of the lip reflexed.
The habitat of this plant is marshy places, damp, moist meadows. The plant has the orchid habit. The tubers are palmate. The stem is usually hollow and leafy above. The leaves, with ring-shaped spots, are spreading, the lowest oblong, blunt, from a narrow base, broadest in -the middle, lance-shaped, acute, not hooded, the tip flat. The bracts exceed the flowers and are 3-nerved, green. The flowers are in a dense spike, purple, the lip slightly 3-lobed, spotted with purple, the borders ultimately bent back, scalloped, the middle lobe the narrowest, the 2 lateral spreading. The spur is awl-like, straight or bent down, shorter than the ovary. The middle sepal and petal meet together. The plant is 9-30 in. high, and is in flower in June and July, being a herbaceous perennial.