This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
In Britain this plant is a weed of waste ground and waysides. The habit is erect. The plant is mealy. The stem is round. The leaves are stellately downy, broad, the margin with small scallops, matted with mealy, woolly hairs. The stem-leaves are heart - shaped, stalkless, ovate, with a long, narrow point. The radical leaves are oblong to elliptic, narrowed into a stalk. The flowers are bright yellow, in a pyramidal, paniclelike raceme, several flowers within each bract, on short stalks, which are woolly. The sepals are small, lance-shaped, woolly, the teeth smooth. The anthers are not decurrent, with the hairs of the anther-stalks white. The capsule is small and ovoid. The plant is 2-4 ft. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous biennial.
The habitat of this species is roadsides, waste places, and it is largely a casual. In S. England, however, it may be a native in dry pastures and woods, and in the northern part of Europe. The habit is erect. The stem is angular. The leaves are stellately downy, not decurrent, scalloped, smooth above, woolly and powdery below, the radical leaves elliptic to oblong, wedge-shaped below, hardly stalked, blunt, coarsely scalloped, green above, white beneath. The stem-leaves are stalk-less, ovate, long and narrow-pointed. The flowers are white, or yellowish, in narrow, panicle-like racemes, which are erect, with many flowers, several to each bract, short-stalked, small. The stamens are equal, the anthers not decurrent, the stalks having white hairs. The calyx is small, woolly. The style is slender. The capsule is ovoid, small. The plant is 2-3 ft. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous biennial.
The habitat of this species is waste places. In the S. of England it may be native on the borders of woods and broken hill-sides. It also occurs on waste ground on the borders of cultivated fields and villages, and by waysides on gravelly soil. The habit is erect. The stem is angular, the covering not matted but hairy. The radical leaves are stalked, ovate to oblong, or lance-shaped, heart-shaped, doubly scalloped. The stem-leaves are hardly stalked, except the upper, ovate to heart-shaped, scarcely white below, stellately downy, not decurrent, smooth above, downy below. The flowers are small, numerous, bright yellow, in clusters, nearly simple, on a long, erect, paniclelike spike or raceme. The flower-stalks are twice as long as the calyx. The sepals are small, tomentose, lance-shaped. The stamens are equal, the hairs on the stalks purple. The anthers are not decurrent. The seeds are brown, squarish, blunt both ends. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering from June to October, and is a herbaceous biennial.
The habitat of this species is gravelly banks, waste places. It is widely dispersed in the New and Old Worlds, cultivated ground, waste places since the seventeenth century, throughout Central and S. Europe. The plant is erect in habit, and nearly hairless. The stem is more or less angular, slender, branched. The radical leaves are ovate-oblong to lance-shaped, blunt, scalloped, lobed, wavy, or more or less pinnatifid. The stem-leaves are small, stalkless, ovate, not decurrent, half-clasping, oblong, acute, heart-shaped, irregularly toothed, more or less scalloped. The flowers are bright yellow, or cream, loose or dense, in a slender, glandular, hairy panicle, the lower bracts leafy. The sepals are oblong, large. The anthers of long stamens are decurrent, with purple hairs on the stalks, 2 longer, hairy on the outside. The ultimate flower-stalks are solitary, about twice as long as the bracts, twice as long as the calyx. The capsule is nearly round. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering from June to October, and is a herbaceous biennial.