This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is muddy tidal rivers. The plant has the bulrush habit. The stems are acutely 3-sided, with concave faces. There are 1-2 long sheaths below, the upper ending in a short, broad, 3-sided leaf, or usually leafless. The flowers are in a small, lateral, cyme-like panicle, with short, stout branches. The lower bract is long and rigid, like a continuation of the stem. The spikelets are small, stalked and stalkless, solitary or few, ovoid, long. The glumes are inversely ovate, notched, smooth, fringed, with rounded, blunt lobes. The nut is 3-angled, roundish to inversely ovate, plano-convex, shining, smooth. The anthers have a short, beardless point. There are 2 stigmas. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering in July and August up to October, and is a herbaceous perennial.
This species is found in wet pastures or marshes, salt marshes, especially near the sea, on the northern and western coasts. The stems are slender, round, tufted. The rootstock is creeping. The leaves are short, channelled, smooth, half-round in section. The spikelets contain 2-4 flowers, and are chestnut - brown, few and short, not longer than the bract. The glumes are dark-brown and polished, the outer glume smooth, as long as the spikelet. There are 1-6 slender, deciduous, short, rough bristles, with spreading or ascending teeth. The fruit is brown, ovate, opaque, with a long beak. The plant is 3-12 in. high, flowering in July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is sandy shores of the north, damp sea sand. The habit is grasslike, drooping. The stem is smooth, stout, bent down, nearly round, with spreading soboles. The leaves are channelled, as long as the stem, with the margins inrolled. The spikelets form a head, the male above. The glumes are blunt, egg-shaped, not so long as the perigynia, which are egg-shaped, swollen, spreading, the smooth beak split. The nut is inversely egg-shaped. The plant is 2-4 in. in height, and flowers in June and July, being a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this sedge is marshes near the sea, brackish marshes, especially on the southern and eastern coasts. The habit is grass-like. The stem is slender, rough at the top, the long, narrow leaves are wavy, and have the margin inrolled, an adaptation to dry conditions. The spikelets form a crowded head, and there is a bristle-like bract below, brown, with a membranous border. The fruit is egg-shaped, and as long as the egg-shaped acute membranous glumes, with a blunt point, plano-convex, veined. The beak is divided into two nearly to the base, and has the edges roughly and coarsely toothed. The nut is brown, rounded. The plant is 1-3 ft. in height, and flowers in June and July. It is a herbaceous perennial.
Carex salina, Wahl. = var. b. kattegensis, Fr. - The habitat of this species is the margins of tidal rivers. The plant has the sedge habit. The stem is 3-angled, tall. The leaves are narrow, yellow-green, with rough keel and margin. The sheaths are not webbed. The spikes are erect, the lower drooping. The male spikelets are 2-3, the fertile 3-4, on short stalks, sometimes male above. The glumes are brownish, egg-shaped, blunt or with a short point, the lower with an excurrent, rough midrib. The bracts are as long as the spikes, leaflike. There are 2-3 stigmas. The fruit is egg-shaped, flattened, with many veins and a short beak. The nut is inversely egg-shaped, narrow above and below. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.