227. Doronicum. - Phyllaries in 2 or 3 rows, equal; involucre hemispherical; ray florets in 1 row, ligulate, female; disk florets tubular, perfect; no pappus in ray florets; pappus rigid.

228. Senecio. - Ray florets in 1 row, ligulate, female, or o; disk florets tubular, perfect; phyllaries in 1 row, equal, with membranous edges; style arms of disk florets free; pappus silky.

229. Carlina. - Outer phyllaries spinose, inner coloured, spreading; florets all perfect; receptacle scaly; pappus in 1 row, feathery.

230. Arctium. - Phyllaries with hooked points; involucre globose; receptacle flat, scaly; anther cells tailed; pappus short, hair-like.

231. Carduus. - Phyllaries all spinous; receptacle scaly; filaments free; fruit not angled; pappus united below in a ring, deciduous, rough, simple.

232. Cirsium (Cnicus). - Phyllaries all spinous; filaments free; fruit flat, not angled; pappus feathery.

233. Onopordon. - Phyllaries all spinous; receptacle honeycombed; filaments free; fruit 4-angled or ribbed, wrinkled; pappus rough.

234. Silybum (Mariana). - Phyllaries leafy below, with spinous points; filaments united below; fruit round in section, wrinkled; pappus hair-like or scaly.

235. Saussurea. - Flowers all bisexual; phyllaries not spinose; anthers bristly below; pappus longer than fruit.

236. Serratula. - Phyllaries unarmed, sharp; receptacle with bristly scales; anthers simple below; fruit flattened; pappus longer than fruit.

237. Centaurea. - Receptacle chaffy; anthers with papillose filaments; pappus shorter than fruit hair-like or none.

238. Cichorium. - Flowerheads blue, axillary ligulate, many; phyllaries in 2 rows, outer short, loose, inner at length turned back; pappus in 2 rows, chaffy.

239. Arnoseris. - Flowerheads yellow, terminal, many; phyllaries in 1 row, at length converging; fruit inversely pyramidal crowned with a ring.

240. Lapsana. - Flowerheads 8-12; phyllaries in 1 row, with 4-5 bracts below; fruit striate, blunt; pappus none.

241. Picris. - Phyllaries in 1 row, with unequal linear spreading ones below; fruit transversely striate, beaked, narrowed each end; pappus hairs feathery.

242. Crepis. - Flowerheads many; involucre double, inner in 1 row; fruit narrowed above or beaked; pappus simple, soft.

243. Hieracium. - Flowerheads many, yellow; phyllaries overlapping, oblong; fruit blunt; pappus hairs rough, brown, brittle, rigid.

244. Hypochaeris. - Receptacle naked, paleaceous; phyllaries oblong; fruit muricate, beaked; pappus in 2 rows, feathery.

245. Leontodon. - Receptacle naked; involucre more or less overlapping; outer phyllaries in 3 rows; fruit beaked; pappus in 2 rows, feathery, inner longer.

246. Taraxacum. - Receptacle naked; involucre double; inner phyllaries erect; outer few, loose; fruit muricate, narrowed below; pappus hairs simple.

247. Lactuca. - Flowerheads few; phyllaries with membranous edge; stem leafy; in 2-4 rows; fruit flattened, beaked, ribs smooth.

248. Sonchus. - Flowerheads many; phyllaries overlapping, in 2-3 rows, unequal; fruit flattened, not beaked, ribs rough or smooth.

249. Tragopogon. - Involucral bracts united below, 8-10, equal; fruit striate, beaked; pappus in many rows, feathery, interwoven in ring.

Order 42. Campanulaceae

250. Lobelia. - Calyx 5-fid; corolla irregular, limb 2 lipped; anthers uniting in tube, 5; stigma blunt; capsule 2-3-celled opening by 2-3 valves.

251. Jasione. - Flowers capitate; calyx 5-fid; corolla regular, rotate, 5-fid; segments linear; anthers connate, tips free; capsule 2-celled.

252. Wahlenbergia (Cervicina). - Corolla regular, bell-shaped, 5-lobed, lobes broad, capsule 3-celled, opening by 3-5 valves above calyx segments.

253. Phyteuma. - Flowers capitate; calyx 5-partite; corolla 2-lipped, regular, 5-fid, segments linear; anthers free; capsule opening at the sides below the calyx-lobes.

254. Campanula. - Calyx 5-partite; corolla bell-shaped, segments 5, broad; anthers free; filaments swollen below; stigmas 3-5-fid; ovary short, broad; capsule opening at sides.

255. Legousia (Specularia). - Corolla regular, rotate or bell-shaped; capsule linear, narrow, oblong opening by lateral pores between calyx-lobes.

Order 43. Vacciniaceae

256. Vaccinium. - Undershrub; calyx entire or 5-toothed; corolla bell-or pitcher-shaped; stamens 8-10; berry globose; seeds many.

257. Oxycoccus. - As 256, but corolla rotate.

Order 44. Ericaceae

258. Arbutus. - Tree; calyx 5-partite; corolla ovoid, 5-cleft; stamens 10; anthers with pores and appendages; fruit tubercled, rough, globose; cells many-seeded.

259. Arctostaphylos. - Undershrub, prostrate, small; fruit smooth, cells I-seeded.

260. Andromeda. - Undershrub; leaves broad; buds clothed with scales; corolla ovate, deciduous; stamens 10; capsule 5-celled, 5-valved.

261. Calluna. - Undershrub; calyx 4-partite, longer than corolla, with 4 green bracts; corolla bell-shaped, 4-cleft, persistent; capsules opening in loculi; seeds numerous in each cell.

262. Erica. - Undershrub; calyx 4 - partite; corolla 4-fid, persistent; stamens 8; capsule septi-cidal; seeds few in each cell.

263. Loiseleuria (Azalea). - Undershrub; calyx 5-partite; corolla bell-shaped, 5-cleft, deciduous; anthers 5, opening by slits; capsule 2-3-celled.

264. Bryanthus (Menziesia) (Phyllodoce). -Calyx 5-partite; corolla ovoid, pitcher-shaped, ventricose, deciduous; stamens 10; anthers opening by pores; capsules 5-celled.

265. Daboecia (Boretta). - Calyx 4-cleft; corolla pitcher-shaped, 4-toothed; stamens 8; anthers opening by pores; capsule 4-celled.

266. Ledum. - Corolla 5-partite; anthers opening by pores.

267. Pyrola. - Undershrub; flowers in raceme; calyx green, 5-partite; corolla of 5 free concave petals; stamens 10; style 5-lobed; capsule 5-valved, loculicidal.