F. germanica: annual; stems erect, cottony, 6-8 inches high, simple or branched at the base, each branch terminated by a single globular cluster of flower-heads, or throwing out immediately under it 2-3 branches, each ending in a similar cluster; leaves erect, lanceolate or linear, pointed or obtuse, sometimes slightly spathulate; flower-heads very small, 20-30 in each cluster, the involucres ovoid-conical, more or less angular, pale yellow or brown, the bracts usually acute. - Dry pastures, and stony or sandy wastes. Fl. July, August.

F. apiculata and F. spathulata are sometimes distinguished from the above, by their shorter or longer, and more or less obtuse or acute floral leaves, by the quantity of cotton on their involucres, and by their obtuse or acute bracts.

F. minima: annual; more slender and smaller than the last, which it resembles; stems more irregularly branched at top, leaves smaller, clusters of flower-heads smaller and more numerous, consisting of 3-10 minute conical heads. - Fields, and stony or sandy wastes. Fl. June to September.