* Perianth covering the seed-like fruit. † Leaves undivided.

C. Vulvaria: annual; stems procumbent, branched; leaves small, ovate, entire, covered with granular mealiness, and remarkable for a strong stale-fish smell when rubbed; flower-clusters in short axillary and terminal racemes. - Waste, rubbishy places. Fl. August, September.

C. polyspermum: annual; stems procumbent or spreading, much branched, sometimes erect; leaves green, ovate; flower-clusters small, in short axillary spikes, the upper ones forming a narrow terminal panicle. - Waste places. Fl. July to September.

†† Leaves angular-lobed.

C. album: annual; stems erect, 1-2 feet high, mealy; leaves ovate or rhomboidal, sinuately toothed or angular, the upper ones narrow, entire; flower-clusters in compound, branched, nearly leafless racemes. - Waste places. Fl. July, August.

C. urbicum: annual; stems erect, slightly branched, 1-2 feet high, not mealy; leaves long-stalked, triangular, sinu-ately-toothed; flower-clusters in erect, nearly leafless, compound spikes. - Waste places. Fl. August.

C. murale: annual; stems erect or decumbent, much branched, a foot high; leaves rhomboid, ovate, coarsely-toothed; flowers chiefly axillary, in branched, spreading, leafless cymes. - Waste places. Fl. August, September.

** Perianth not covering the seed-like fruit.

C. rubrum: annual; stems erect, a foot high; leaves rhomboid, irregularly sinuate-toothed; flowers in erect, compound, dense leafy spikes, mostly with only 2-3 segments to the perianth, the seed erect, not horizontal. - Waste places, especially near the sea. Fl. August and September.

C. Bonus-Henricus: stems a foot high, scarcely branched; leaves broadly triangular, sinuate or slightly toothed; flowers numerous, in clustered spikes, forming a narrow terminal panicle. - Good King Henry. - Waste ground near villages and dwellings. Fl. May to August.