R. catharticus: shrub; leaves ovate, minutely toothed; branches often thorny; flowers small, green, dioecious, with four petals and four stamens; fruit black. - Thickets. Fl. May.

It. Frangula: shrub; leaves more obtuse, entire; branches without thorns; flowers small, hermaphrodite, with five petals and five stamens; fruit dark purple. - Thickets and woods. - Fl. May.

(50) Euonymus. Spindle-tree. E. europseus: shrub; leaves ovate-oblong, minutely toothed; flowers small, yellowish-green; fruit red, angular, opening at the angles and exposing a brilliant orange-coloured arillus, which envelopes the seeds. - Hedges and thickets. Fl. May.