* Style single, filiform.
(135) Linnsea - corolla-limb nearly regular; stamens four.
** Stigmas three, sessile.
(136) Sambucus - corolla rotate; berry 3-4-seeded; leaves pinnated.
(137) Viburnum - corolla shortly campanulate or funnel-shaped; berry one-seeded; leaves entire or lobed, not pinnated.
* Corolla rotate, tlie tube very short.
(138) Rubia - corolla usually five-lobed; fruit fleshy.
(139) Galium - corolla usually four-lobed; fruit dry, not crowned by the calyx.
** Corolla-tube distinct, as long as the lobes. (140) Sherardia - corolla funnel-shaped; fruit dry, crowned by the four calyx teeth.
(141) Centranthus - corolla-tube spurred at the base; stamen solitary. (142) Valeriana - corolla-tube slightly swollen, but not spurred at the base; stamens three; fruit crowned by a feathery pappus.
(143) Dipsacus - scales of the receptacle between the florets prickly or spinous.
(144) Scabiosa - scales of the receptacle between the florets not prickly or changed to hairs.
* Florets all tubular, or those of the disk or centre tubular with the outer ones ligulate forming a ray, or slender and filiform; style of the perfect florets not swollen below its branches (Corymbiferae).
† Pappus none, or consisting merely of a border or short scales or teeth.
‡ Receptacle scaly; (pappus none).
(145) Anthemis - heads radiant; receptacle convex or conical; involucre imbricated, of few rows; fruit terete, or obtusely tetragonal, with a more or less prominent margin.
(146) Achillea - heads radiant; tube of the disk-florets pianocompressed, two-winged; receptacle narrow, slightly elevated; involucre ovate or oblong, imbricated; fruit compressed.
Receptacle without scales; (heads radiant).
(147) Chrysanthemum - involucre hemispherical; receptacle plane or convex; fruit terete, without wings or slightly angular and somewhat winged; pappus none, or consisting of three minute teeth or an elevated border.
(148) Matricaria - involucre nearly flat; receptacle elongate-conical; fruit angular, not winged; pappus none.
†† Pappus of two or three persistent awns.
(119) Bidens - heads discoidal, sometimes radiant; receptacle flat; involucre of two rows, the outer spreading; fruit compressed, angular, rough at the edges.
††† Pappus pilose, abundant. ‡ Involucral scales herbaceous. § Heads discoid or Floscular.
(150) Eupatorium - heads few-flowered; involucre imbricated, cylindrical or oblong, the scales oval-oblong; receptacle naked; fruit angular or striated.
§§ Heads radiant.
(151) Erigeron - involucre imbricated oblong, the scales linear acute; receptacle naked, foveolate; pappus in many rows; fruit compressed.
(152) Solidago - involucre imbricated; receptacle naked; pappus in one row; fruit terete.
(153) Senecio - involucre cylindrical or conical, of one row of equal scales, not membranous at the edge, with or without smaller scales at the base; receptacle naked; fruit cylindrical, with a pappus of simple soft hairs.
(154) Inula - involucre imbricated, in many rows; receptacle naked; pappus uniform, in one row; anthers with two bristles at the base.
(155) Pulicaria - involucre loosely imbricated in few rows; receptacle naked; pappus in two rows, the outer cup-like, membranous; anthers with two bristles at the base.
‡‡ Involucral scales dry, scarious.
(156) Gnaphalium - involucre hemispherical, imbricated, the scales unequal, blunt; receptacle flat, naked.
(157) Filago - involucre subcorneal, imbricated, the scales equal, acuminate; receptacle conical, scaly at the margin.
** Florets all tubular; style swollen below its branches (Cynarocephalae).
† Involucral scales hooked at the point.
(158) Arctium - involucre globose, imbricated; receptacle flat, with rigid subulate scales; fruit compressed, obloug; pappus short, pilose, distinct.
†† Involucral scales not hooked.
‡ Pappus single, long, plumose, the hairs unequally united at the base; (achenes silky).
(159) Carlina - involucre imbricated, the outer scales spinose, leafy, spreading at the points, the inner linear, scarious, coloured, resembling radiant florets; receptacle with cleft scales.
‡‡ Pappus in many rows, equal, long, the hairs united at the base into a ring; (achenes smooth).
(160) Carduus - involucre imbricated, with simple spinous pointed scales; receptacle with fimbriated scales; fruit compressed, oblong.
(161) Silybum - involucre imbricated, the scales leaf-like at the base, narrowed into a long spreading or recurved spinous point; receptacle scaly; fruit compressed, with a papillose ring at the end.
‡‡‡ Pappus in many rows, unequal, equalling or shorter than the achenes, rarely none.
(162) Centatirea - involucre imbricated, the scales leafy, scarious or spiny; receptacle with jagged scales; fruit attached laterally above the base.
‡‡‡‡ Pappus in many rows, unequal, longer than the fruit.
(163) Serratula - heads dioecious; involucre imbricated, the scales unarmed, acute; receptacle with scales split into linear bristles; fruit compressed.
*** Florets all ligulate and perfect; style not swollen beneath its branches (Cichoraceae). † Pappus none.
(164) Lapsana - heads 8-12-flowered; involucre with one row of linear-lanceolate erect scales, and 4-5 external ones; receptacle naked; fruit compressed, striated.
†† Pappus sessile, setaceous in the ray, feathery in the disk florets.
(1G5) Thrincia - involucre oblong, in one row, with a few additional scales at the base; receptacle punctured; fruit beaked; pappus in two rows, the outer setaceous, deciduous, the inner longer, feathery; marginal row of fruits, scarcely beaked, with a short scaly fimbriated pappus.
(16G) Leontodon - involucre imbricated, the exterior scales much smaller in 1-3 rows; receptacle punctured; fruit smooth, slightly beaked; pappus in two rows, the outer setaceous, persistent, the inner longer, feathery.
††† Pappus sessile, uniform in the ray and disk florets. ‡ Pappus in one row.
(1G7) Oporinia - involucre imbricated, the exterior scales much smaller, in several rows; receptacle not scaly; fruit attenuated, uniform; pappus feathery, dilated at the base.
(168) Hieracium - involucre imbricated, with many oblong scales; receptacle not scaly; fruit terete, ribbed, not beaked, with a very short crenulated margin; pappus pilose.
‡‡ Pappus in two rows.
(160) Picris - involucre of one row of equal scales, with unequal linear often spreading scales at the base; receptacle dotted; fruit terete, transversely striated, constricted or slightly beaked above; pappus feathery, the outer row subpilose.
(170) Cichorium - involucre in two rows, the outer of 5 shortish, the inner of 8-10 longer converging scales; receptacle naked, or slightly pilose; fruit crowned by a ring of two rows of minute erect scales. ‡‡‡ Pappus in many rows.
171) Sonchus - involucre imbricated, with two or three rows of unequal scales; fruit piano-compressed, truncate above, not beaked.
(172) Crepis - involucre double, the inner of one row, the outer of short lax scales; fruit terete, narrowed upwards, or obscurely beaked.
††††Pappus stalked. ‡ Pappus in two rows.
(173) Hypochoeris - involucre oblong, imbricated; receptacle scaly; fruit glabrous, muricated, often beaked.
Pappus in many rows. § Pappus feathery.
(174) Helminthia - involucre of eight equal scales, in one row, surrounded by three to five loose leafy bracts; receptacle dotted; fruit compressed, transversely rugose, rounded at the end, and with a slender beak longer than itself.
(175) Tragopogon - involucre simple, of eight to ten scales connected at the base; receptacle punctured; fruit longitudinally striated, with a long beak.
§§ Pappus hair-like.
(176) Lactuca - heads few-flowered; involucre imbricated, in two to four rows, the outer row shorter, the scales with a membranous margin; fruit piano-compressed, contracted and produced into a filiform beak.
(177) Barkhausia - heads many-flowered; involucre double, the inner of one row, the outer of short lax scales; fruit terete, all (or the inner ones only) gradually contracted into a long beak.