11. Umbelliferous Plants. Umbelliferae

* Albumen solid.

Fruit ovate or elliptical, rounded or slightly compressed dorsally.

Vittae single between the ribs.

(18) Foeniculum - fruit nearly taper; carpels with five prominent obtusely-keeled ridges, of which the lateral form a margin, and are rather broader than the others.

‡‡ Vittae two or more between the ribs.

(19) Silaus - fruit nearly taper; carpels with five sharp winged equal ridges, of which the lateral form a margin; interstices with many vittae.

†† Fruit much compressed dorsally.

(20) Angelica - fruit two-winged on each side; carpels with three dorsal raised filiform ridges, and two marginal ones dilated into a wing twice as broad as the rest; interstices with single vittae.

(21) Archangelica - fruit two-winged on each side; carpels with thick dorsal ridges, and two marginal ones dilated into a wing twice as broad as the rest, without vittae; seed with numerous vittae.

(22) Peucedanum - fruit surrounded by a flat dilated margin; carpels with equidistant ridges, the three dorsal filiform, the two lateral more obsolete, contiguous to the dilated margin; interstices with single vittae.

** Albumen furrowed or involute at the margin.

(23) Physospermum - fruit contracted at the side, double; carpels roundish or reniform-globose, with five fine slender filiform equal ridges, of which the lateral are placed within the margin; interstices with single vittae.

12. Araliaceous Plants. Araliaceae

(24) Hedera - calyx-limb of five teeth; petals, stamens, and styles 5-10; berry five-celled, five-seeded, crowned with the calyx.

13. Dipsacaceous Plants. Dipsacaceae

(25) Scabiosa - inner calyx of five bristles, outer membranous and plaited; receptacle scaly; fruit nearly cylindrical, with eight excavations.

14. Composite Plants. Compositae

* Florets all tubular, or those of the disk tubular with the outer ones ligulate, forming a ray; style not swollen below its branches (Corymbiferae).

Pappus none, or consisting of a mere border.

‡ Receptacle scaly; (heads radiant).

(26) Anthemis - involucre hemispherical, the scales nearly equal, scarious at the margin; receptacle conical, paleaceous; pappus a membrane.

‡‡ Receptacle without scales; (heads discoid).

(27) Artemisia - involucre ovate or round; florets all tubular, those of the disk hermaphrodite, five-toothed, of the ray slender, less numerous, entire, female; receptacle naked or hairy; pappus none.

(28) Tanacetum - involucre hemispherical; florets all tubular, those of the disk hermaphrodite, five-lobed, of the ray female, three-lobed; receptacle naked; pappus membranous, entire.

† Pappus pilose. ‡ Anthers without bristles at the base.

(29) Senecio - involucre with bracteoles at the base, the scales scorched at the apex; flowers flosculous or radiant; receptacle naked; pappus soft, hairy.

(30) Aster - involucre imbricated, the scales linear, acute; flowers radiant, of the ray female, in a single row, oblong; receptacle naked; pappus hairy.

(31) Chrysocoma - involucre imbricated, hemispherisal or ovate, the scales linear; florets all hermaphrodite, tubular; receptacle excavated; pappus hairy, ciliated.

‡‡ Anthers with two bristles at their base.

(32) Inula - involucre imbricated; flowers radiant or tubular; receptacle naked; pappus hairy, simple.

(33) Pulicaria - involucre imbricated; flowers radiant; receptacle naked; pappus double, the outer membranous.

** Florets all tubular; style swollen below its branches (Cynarocephaleae).

† Pappus pilose in many rows, equal, long, the hairs united into a ring at the base.

(34) Onopordum - involucre imbricated, the scales pungent; receptacle excavated like honey-comb; fruit compressed, four-cornered, furrowed transversely.

†† Pappus pilose in many rows, unequal, the second row longest, equal to or shorter than the fruit.

(35) Centaurea - involucre imbricated, the scales leafy, scarious, or spiny in various ways; receptacle paleaceous, the scales jagged; fruit inserted obliquely at the base.

*** Florets all ligulate; style not swollen (Cichoraceae). † Pappus sessile, in one row.

(36) Crepis - involucre double, the outer row short; receptacle naked; fruit terete, not ribbed, narrowed upwards or beaked; pappus of simple hairs, which are usually white.

(37) Hieracium - involucre imbricated; receptacle naked, or with a few short hairs; fruit terete, ribbed, truncate and margined above; pappus of stiff tawny hairs.

†† Pappus sessile, in many rows.

(38) Sonchus - involucre oblong, imbricated, ovate at the base; receptacle naked; pappus short, hairy; fruit compressed, striated longitudinally.