Leaves with netted veins. Flowers usually quinary - the parts in fives, or quaternary - the parts in fours. Embryos with two (rarely more) cotyledons; hence dicotyledonous.
* Eriocaulon septangulare - Plate 24 B.
** Ovary syncarpous. † Placentas parietal (i.e. seeds attached to sides of carpels). Stamens six, united in two sets.
2. Fumariaceous plants - herbs; flowers very irregular, with two sepals and four petals.
‡‡ Stamens tetradynamous, distinct.
3. Cruciferous plants - herbs; flowers regular, of four sepals and four petals, arranged crosswise.
†† Placentas axile (i. e. seeds attached to axis of carpels). ‡ Flowers regular. § Sepals overlapping at the edge (imbricate). Ovary one-celled; stamens distinct.
4. Caryophyllaceous plants - herbs; leaves opposite, undivided, without stipules; flowers symmetrical, with 4-5 sepals and petals, and definite stamens.
(a) Stamens monadelphous,
5. Geraniaceous plants - herbs; flowers symmetrical, with five sepals and petals; carpels fixed around a persistent central axis.
(b) Stamens polyadelphous.
6. Hypericaceous plants - shrubs; leaves opposite, often dotted; sepals and petals five, stamens indefinite.
§§ Sepals parallel at the edge (valvate).
7. Malvaceous plants - herbs or shrubs; sepals and petals five, surrounded by an involucre of three or more bracts; stamens united by their filaments into a column around the pistil.
Calyciflores: Polypetalous dichlamydeous plants, with the petals usually distinct, and the stamens perigynous or epi-gynou3; Orders 8 to 12.
* Ovary superior, the calyx distinct from the carpels; (stamens perigynous).
8. Leguminous plants - shrubs or herbs; flowers very irregular, papilionaceous; stamens ten, all or nine of them united; ovary a legume or pod.
9. Crassulaceous plants - herbs, with succulent leaves; flowers regular, isomerous; carpels as many as the petals free.
** Ovary superior or half inferior, the calyx adhering more or less to the carpels; (stamensperigynous).
10. Saxifragaceous plants - herbs; flowers regular; stamens 5-10, separate.
*** Ovary inferior; (stamens epigynous).
12. Araliaceous plants - shrubs; fruit succulent, of more than two carpels, not separating.
Monopetals: Dichlamydeous plants, with the petals united (from the base more or less upwards) into a single piece; Orders 13 to 18.
* Stamens epigynous; (ovary inferior). † Stamens attached to the corolla, separate.
13. Dipsacaceous plants - herbs; flowers in compact heads or spikes; calyx surrounded by an involucre; stamens equalling in number the divisions of the corolla, the anthers free.
†† Stamens attached to the corolla, cohering by their anthers.
14. Composite plants - herbs; florets in heads; stamens equalling in number the divisions of the corolla, the anthers united into a ring around the style.
** Stamens hypogynous.
15. Ericaceous plants - shrubs; stamens as many or twice as many as the corolla lobes; anthers opening by two pores.
** Stamens perigynous. † Seeds attached to a free central placenta.
16. Primulaceous plants - herbs; stamens attached to the tube of the corolla, isomerous, opposite its lobes.
†† Seeds attached to a parietal placenta. ‡ Corolla regular.
17. Gentianaceous plants - herbs; stamens attached to the tube of the corolla, isomerous, alternating with its lobes.
‡‡ Corolla more or less irregular.
18. Labiate plants - herbs; corolla two-lipped; stamens didynaraous; ovary four-lobed, the lobes one-seeded.
Monochlamyds: Perianth single, consisting of a calyx only.
19. Chenopodiaceous plants - herbs; perianth small, inferior; carpels solitary, one-seeded.
Endogenous Plants or Monocotyledons.
Leaves with parallel veins. Flowers usually ternary - the parts in threes Embryos with one cotyledon, hence Mono-cotyledonous. This group includes Orders 20 to 24.
* Flowers perfect, with a petal-like whorled perianth. † Ovary inferior.
20. Orchidaceous plants - herbs; flowers six-leaved, irregular; stamens and style united into a central column.
†† Ovary superior.
21. Liliaceous plants - herbs; flowers six-leaved, the segments sometimes combined, regular; anthers turned inwards; style and ovaries consolidated.
22. Melanthaceous plants - herbs; flowers six-leaved, regular, long-tubed; anthers turned outwards; styles distinct; ovaries subterraneous in the flowering stage, separable.
** Flowers glumaceous, or formed of imbricated colourless scales, not truly whorled.
† Ovary 2-3-celled.
23. Eriocaulaceous plants - aquatic herbs, with spongy cellular leaves, and unisexual flowers in small crowded scaly heads.
†† Ovary one-celled.
24. Graminaceous plants - herbs, with grassy sheathing leaves, the leaves split on the side opposite the blade.