* Cornus sanguinea - Plate 13 D.
† Lonicera Periclymenwm - Plate 14 A.
The Ladies' Bedstraw* is one of a genus of weak straggling herbs, representing the Galiaceous family; which itself is sometimes, under the name of Stellates, referred as a section to the Rubiaceous or Cinchonaceous family. The Galiums have spreading or straggling stems, and narrow leaves placed in whorls around the stem. The species here represented is a smooth branching herb, with decumbent or ascending stems, which have the small linear leaves in whorls of six or eight, and which terminate in oblong panicles of bright yellow flowers. These have the calyx completely consolidated with the ovary, without any visible border, and a rotate four-lobed corolla, of which the tube is hardly perceptible; four stamens alternating with the lobes of the corolla; and a style cleft in two, with a capitate stigma on each branch. The fruit is small, dry, smooth, two-lobed, with one seed to each lobe.
The Red Valerian,† another of the epigynous Monopetals, represents the Valerianaceous family. This plant, a perennial herb, native of the southern parts of Europe, is now naturalized in many localities, on old walls and on chalky cliffs, as well as cultivated in flower-gardens. It forms a much branched, almost sub-shrubby, mass, one to two feet high, quite smooth, the stems furnished with broadish, ovate-lanceolate, slightly-toothed leaves, and terminating in close cy-mose panicles of red, rarely white, flowers. In these, the calyx at the time of flowering consists of a border rolled inwards and entire; the corolla has a slender tube, projected in the form of a spur at the base, and divided at top into five segments, in a somewhat two-lipped manner; and there is one stamen, and a slender style. The fruit is seed-like, and the incurved border of the calyx becomes, in the mature state, unrolled into an elegant feathery pappus. An approach towards the structure of Composite plants is very evident in these pappus-crowned fruits.
* Galium verum - Plate 14 B. † Centranthus ruler - Plate 14 C.
The Common Teasel,* which illustrates the Dipsacaceous family, has in outward aspect a kind of intermediate position between the Composites and Umbellifers, as seen in certain capitate-flowered plants of those families, such as Echinops and Eryngium. The free condition of the anthers, however, separates them from the Composites, and the opposite leaves and monopetalous corollas from the Umbellifers. The Teasel is a vigorous growing, erect, branched biennial, of some four or five feet high, armed on the stems, midribs, flower-stalks, and involucres with numerous short prickles. The leaves are sessile, elongate lanceolate, toothed, opposite, the upper ones broadly connate, that is, joined together by their base. The flower-heads, which come on long stalks, have at their base a spreading involucre of from eight to twelve stiff narrow linear prickly leaves or bracts, and are at first ovoid, gradually acquiring a cylindrical form; the flowers are crowded over their surface, each standing in the axil of a scale which is rather longer than the flowers, broad and hairy at the base, narrowed into a thin prickly point. The flowers are small, pale lilac, each inserted in a small angular involucel having the appearance of an outer calyx with a small thickened border; the calyx has a small cup-shaped border appearing above the involucel, and the monopetalous corolla is four-lobed and oblique. The flowers have four free stamens inserted in the tube of the corolla, and the ovary becomes a dry single-seeded fruit, crowned by the border of the calyx. The united bases of the opposite leaves of this plant form a hollow around the stem, in which water collects, and hence the plant was called dipsakos, or thirsty; hence also it obtained the name of Venus's Bath. Superstitious persons have fancied that the water thus collected from the rains and dews was good for bleared eyes.
* Dipsacus sylvestris - Plate 14 D.
In the Musk Thistle* we have a further example of the Composite family, not however belonging to the same divisions as the Daisy and Dandelion already noticed. These respectively belong to the Corymbiferous and Ligulate groups, but the Thistles belong to a very distinct subdivision of the family, which has been appropriately called Thistleheads. This latter is distinguished by the florets being all tubular, and by the style being swollen below its two arms. The Musk Thistle is a biennial plant, producing in the first year a spreading tuft of very pretty oblong-lanceolate sinuately pinnatifid leaves, the edges of which are prickly-toothed - and very sharply prickled too, like other Thistles. In the second year, the branching stem grows up two or three feet high, furnished with smaller pinnatifid prickly leaves, whose edges are decur-rcnt, that is, running down the stem, forming narrow prickly wings. The flower-heads are terminal, large, drooping, and handsome. The involucres are globular, formed of numerous closely imbricated bracts, and surrounding a thick receptacle bearing bristles between the florets; these bracts have a stiff narrow-lanceolate appendage, ending in a spreading or re-flexed prickle. The florets are crimson, all equal, with a long slender tube, and five erect narrow divisions. The fruits, called achenes, are glabrous, with a pappus of simple hairs longer than the achene itself. The plant is found commonly in waste places in many parts of Britain, most frequently in the south. In another subdivision of epigynous Monopetals, the stamens are inserted on the calyx, free from the corolla. This is the case in the Harebell Campanula,* a beautiful little wild-flower found in hilly pastures and heathy wastes, and extending in its range from the Mediterranean to the Arctic Circle. The plant is a dwarf perennial herb, with a slender creeping rootstock. At the base of its stems, which vary from six to eighteen inches in height, the leaves are long-stalked, roundish or heart-shaped, and sparingly toothed; those higher up the stem are lance-shaped or linear and entire. The stems are variously branched, according to their luxuriance, forming usually a loose raceme or panicle of elegant drooping blue flowers: "little bells of faint and tender blue, which gracefully, bend their small heads in every breeze." Sir Walter Scott describes the elastic tread of his fair "lady of the lake" as not even disturbing the position of the slender Harebell: " A foot more light, a step more true, Ne'er from the heath-flower dashed the dew; E'en the slight Harebell raised its head Elastic from her airy tread."