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British Wild Flowers In The Four Seasons | by Thomas Moore



Familiarly Described In The Four Seasons For The Use Of Beginners And Amateurs. A New Edition Of "The Field Botanist's Companion"

TitleBritish Wild Flowers In The Four Seasons
AuthorThomas Moore
PublisherReeve & Co.
Year1867
Copyright1867, Reeve & Co.
AmazonBritish Wild Flowers

By Thomas Moore, F.L.S., F.R.H.S., Etc.

-Preface
The present Work forms one of a projected series of Illustrated Volumes on British Natural History. It has not been prepared in consequence either of a lack of books on the same subject or of any defi...
-Spring Flowers
Bring flowers.......... They speak of hope to the fainting heart, With a voice of promise they come and part; They sleep in dust through the winter hours, They break forth in glory; bring flowers, b...
-Spring Flowers. Part 2
* Crocus vermis - Plate 6 A. The Crocus flowers have three stamens, and a stigma which is dilated and fringed at the top. The long slender tube of the perianth, which is in fact the stalk-like port...
-Spring Flowers. Part 3
And then, who does not know the Violet,+ the very emblem and personification of sweetness - sweeter, as Shakspere says, than Cytherea's breath? This lovely plant is common on banks and under hedges,...
-Spring Flowers. Part 4
* Leoniodon Taraxacum - Plate 3 B. But we have another illustration, which will serve to explain a different set of these Composite flowers, called the Corymbi-fers from their heads being generally...
-Spring Flowers. Part 5
Of a different character, still Monochlamydeous, is the Wych Elm,+ the common wild Elm of Scotland, Ireland, and the north and west of England, a representative of the Ulmaceous family. Here we have a...
-Spring Flowers. Part 6
The Spring Squill,* a regular-flowered Monocotyledon, and one of the Liliaceous family, is a delicate little bulbous plant, found in sandy wastes and pastures, especially near the sea. It has narrow-l...
-Summary Of Spring Flowers
I. - Groups And Orders Exogenous Plants or Dicotyledons. Leaves with netted veins. Flowers usually quinary - the parts in fives, or quaternary - the parts in fours. Embryos with two (rarely more...
-Summary Of Spring Flowers. Part 2
II.-Genera Or Families 1. Ranunculaceous Plants. Ranunculaceae * Carpels several, short, one-seeded; (flowers regular.) Sepals 4-5 or more, often petal-like, hut no real petals. (1...
-Summary Of Spring Flowers. Part 3
6. Geraniaceous Plants. Geraniaceae (27) Geranium - stamens ten, monadelphous; carpels one-seeded. 7. Oxalidaceous Plants. Oxalidaceae (28) Oxalis - stamens ten; ovary five-celled, the cells ...
-Summary Of Spring Flowers. Part 4
13. Saxifragaceous Plants. Saxifragaceae * Petals five. (47) Saxifraga - stamens ten all antheriferous; styles two; ovary two-celled, superior or partially inferior. ** Petals none. (48) C...
-Summary Of Spring Flowers. Part 5
25. Apocynaceous Plants. Apocynaceae (64) Vinca - corolla hypocrateriform, with a cylindrical tube, and flat spreading limb of oblique segments. 26. Gentianaceous Plants. Gentianaceae: * Terr...
-Summary Of Spring Flowers. Part 6
38. Corylaceous Plants. Corylaceae * Male flowers in globose catkins; (anthers 2-celled.) (85) Fagus - female flowers two or three together in the centre of a scaly four-lobed prickly involucre;...
-Summary Of Spring Flowers. Part 7
45. Liliaceous Plants. Liliaceae * Stem leafy, branching, shrub-like. (102) Ruscus - leaves stiff, prickly, bearing the flowers on their upper reversed surface. ** Stem leafy, simple. †...
-(1) Anemone
* Sepals covered outside with silky hairs. A. Pulsatilla: flowers large, solitary, violet-purple, with the involucre deeply cut into linear segments; carpels with feathery tails. - Pasque-flower. -...
-(2) Myosurus. Mousetail
M. minimus: annual, dwarf; radical leaves linear; flowers solitary, small, greenish; receptacle becoming much elongated. - Damp sandy or gravelly fields. Fl. May, June. (3) Ranunculus. Crowfoot. * ...
-(4) Caltha. Marsh Marigold
C. palustris: leaves heart-shaped, rounded; flowers large, golden-yellow. - Marshy places. Fl. March to May. ...
-(5) Helleborus. Hellebore
H. viridis: flowers 3-4, large, with spreading yellowish-green sepals. - Woods and thickets in calcareous soil. Fl. March, April. H. foetidus: flowers numerous, panicled, with large ovate bracts, a...
-(6) Actaea. Baneberry
A. spicata: radical leaves large, twice ternate, with ovate three-lobed coarsely toothed leaflets; flowers nearly white, in a loose raceme. - Herb Christopher. - Mountain woods and thickets in the nor...
-(7) Berberis. Berberry
B. vulgaris: shrub; branches with 3-lobed thorns at the base of leaf-tufts; leaves obovate, sharply toothed; flower small, yellow, in drooping racemes, disagreeably scented. - Hedges and thickets. Fl....
-(8) Cheiranthus. Wallflower
C. Cheiri: subshrubby; leaves lance-shaped, acute, slightly hoary; flowers large, racemose, yellow or reddish-brown, very fragrant. - Walls and rocky places. Fl. April, May. ...
-(9) Barbarea. Winter-cress
B. vulgaris: stem erect; lower leaves lyrate, with a broad rounded terminal lobe; flowers, small, yellow, racemed. - Belleisle Cress or Yellow Rocket. - Waste places. Fl. May to July. ...
-(10) Arabis. Rock-cress
A. Thaliana: annual; stem slender, erect; lower leaves stalked, oblong, with a few coarse teeth, upper few, small, sessile; flowers small, white. - Thale-cress. - Banks and waste places. Fl. April. ...
-(11) Cardamine. Bitter-cress
C. amara: stems weak, ascending; leaves pinnate with 5-7 large ovate or orbicular segments, the upper ones angular toothed; flowers largish, white, in few-flowered racemes. - Sides of streams and wate...
-(12) Alliaria. Garlic Mustard
A. officinalis: annual or biennial; stem erect; lower leaves roundish, crenate, upper heart-shaped, ovate, or triangular, with an odour of garlic; flowers small, white. - Sauce-Alone or Jack-by-the-He...
-(13) Dentaria. Tooth-cress
D. bulbifera: stem tallish, weak; lower leaves pinnate, upper simple; flowers few, large, purplish. - Coral-root. - Woods and shady places, rare. Fl. April, May. ...
-(14) Draba. Whitlow-grass
* Flowers yellow. D. aizoides: dwarf, tufted; leaves sessile, linear, ciliated; flowers few, rather large. - Rocks, rare. Fl. March, April. ** Flowers white. D. muralis: annual; stem weak, as...
-(15) Alyssum. Madwort
A. calycinum: annual, dwarf, branching; leaves oblong-linear narrowed to the base; flowers yellow, inconspicuous. - - Cornfields. Fl. May and June. ...
-(16) Hutchinsia
H. petraea: annual, dwarf; lower leaves pinnate; stem-leaves few and smaller; flowers minute, white. - Walls, rocks, and stony places. Fl. March, April. ...
-(17) Teesdalia
T. nudicaulis: annual, dwarf; leaves radical, pinnate, with a larger terminal lobe; flower-stems leafless, bearing very small white flowers. - Dry gravelly places. Fl. May. ...
-(18) Thlaspi. Penny-cress
T. arvense: annual; stem erect; leaves oblong, toothed; flowers small, white. - Mithridate Mustard. - Waste and cultivated ground. Fl. May to July. T. perfoliatum: annual; stem erect; root-leaves o...
-(20) Lychnis
L. Flos-cuculi: leaves narrow, lance-shaped, the lower ones stalked; flowers pale red, the petals cut into four linear segments. - Ragged Robin. - Moist meadows. Fl. May, June. L. diurna: leaves ov...
-(21) Sagina. Pearlwort
S. procumbens: minute, forming branching decumbent tufts; leaves small, subulate; flowers small, whitish, often without petals. - Common in sandy wastes. Fl. May to August. ...
-(22) Arenaria. Sandwort
A. verna: leaves awl-shaped, bluntish; flowers small, white, - Mountain pastures. Fl. May to August. A. trinervis: annual; leaves ovate acute, ribbed; flowers small, white. - Moist shady places. Fl...
-(23) Moenchia
M. erecta: annual; stem short, erect; leaves linear; flowers few, rather large, white. - Sandy wastes. Fl. May. (24) Holosteum. H. umbellatum : annual; leaves ovate, acute; flowers white, umbellate...
-(25) Cerastium. Mouse-ear Chickweed
C. vulgatum: annual, branched, usually viscid; leaves roundish-ovate, stalked; flowers minute, in dichotomous panicles. - A very variable plant. - Waste places, very common. Fl April to September. ...
-(26) Stellaria. Starwort
S. nemorum : lower leaves heart-shaped, upper ovate sessile; flowers large, white, in elegant spreading cymes, the petals narrow and deeply cleft. - Moist woods. Fl. May, June. S. media: annual, sm...
-(27) Geranium. Crane's-bill
G. molle: annual; leaves orbicular, cut into 7-11 wedge-shaped lobes; peduncles 2-flowered; flowers small, purple, with deeply notched petals. - Waste places. Fl. April to August. ...
-(28) Oxalis. Wood-Sorrel
O. Acetosella: peduncles radical, 1-flowered; flowers white. - Groves and shady places. Fl. April, May. O. corniculata: annual, procumbent, branched; peduncles axillary, supporting an umbel of yell...
-(29) Acer. Maple
A. campestre: tree; leaves 5-lobed, with obtuse, entire or sinuate lobes; flowers in loose erect corymbs; wings of the carpels diverging horizontally. - Hedges and thickets. Fl. May, June. A. Pseud...
-(30) Polygala. Milkwort
P. vulgaris: stems diffuse or ascending; leaves obovate below, oblong-lanceolate above; flowers racemed, blue, pink, or white. - Gravelly and heathy pastures. Fl. May to September. ...
-(31) Ulex. Furze
Xt. europseus: shrub; branches erect, the numerous short branchlets all ending in a thorn, the leaves generally reduced to thorns; flowers large, yellow, in showy racemes, intermixed with thorns, the ...
-(32) Genista. Green Weed
G. pilosa: shrub, without thorns; leaves obovate or lanceolate, hairy; flowers yellow, succeeded by narrow flattened hairy pods. - Sandy and gravelly heaths. Fl. May and September. G. anglica: shru...
-(33) Sarothamnus. Broom
S. scoparius: shrub; branches erect, strait, wiry, angled; leaves ternate, the upper ones simple; flowers large, bright yellow, axillary. - Dry gravelly thickets. Fl. May, June. ...
-(34) Trifolmm. Clover
T. subterraneum: annual; stem short, decumbent; leaflets obovate; heads lateral, stalked, few-flowered, the peduncles becoming lengthened after flowering, and the heads buried in the earth; flowers lo...
-(35) Vicia. Vetch
V. sativa: annual or biennial; leaves pinnate, tendrilled; flowers axillary, sessile, solitary or in pairs, large reddish-purple; calyx gibbous at the base on one side; seeds smooth. - There are sever...
-(36) Arthrolobium
A. ebracteatum: annual; stems slender, with axillary peduncles bearing umbels of minute yellow flowers. - Sandy ground in the Channel and Scilly Isles. Fl. May to July. ...
-(37) Hippocrepis. Horseshoe Vetch
H. comosa: stems branched, procumbent; leaflets 9-15, small, obovate or oblong, smooth; flowers 5-8 in the umbel, pale yellow. - Dry chalky banks. Fl. May to August. ...
-(38) Ornithopus. Bird's-Foot
O. perpusillus: annual; stems procumbent; leaflets 5-10 or more pairs with an odd one, small oval or oblong; flowers 2-3, white, with red lines. - Sandy pastures. Fl. May. ...
-(39) Prunus
P. communis: shrub; leaves ovate or oblong; flowers small white, nearly sessile, solitary or in pairs, appearing before the leaves; drupes covered with a bluish bloom. - Blackthorn. - Woods and hedges...
-(40) Fragaria. Strawberry
F. vesca: leaflets 3, ovate, toothed, sessile at the end of a long leaf-stalk; flower-stems erect, leafless, bearing a few pedicellate white flowers. - Wood Strawberry. - Groves and thickets. Fl. May,...
-(41) Potentilla. Cinquefoil
P. Fragariastrum: stems tufted; leaves digitately divided; flowers white. - Dry gravelly pastures. Fl. March, April. P. verna: stem short, tufted, sometimes procumbent; leaves digitately divided; f...
-(42) Alchemilla. - Lady's Mantle
A. vulgaris: radical leaves 7-9-lobed, plaited; flowers in terminal panicles, on the decumbent or ascending stems. - Mountain pastures. Fl. April to August. A. arvensis: annual; leaves 3-lobed, cut...
-(43) Mespilus. Medlar
M. germanica: small tree; leaves nearly sessile, lanceolate or oblong; flowers large, white, solitary, sessile on short leafy branches. - Hedges, rare. Fl. May. ...
-(44) Crataegus. Hawthorn
C. Oxyacantha: shrub or small tree, thorny; leaves obovate, wedge-shaped, stalked, cut into 3-5 toothed lobes; flowers white or pink, scented, in sessile corymbs on short leafy branches. - Whitethorn ...
-(45) Pyrus
* Leaves simple, rarely pinnatifid. P. communis: tree; leaves ovate or obovate, finely saw-toothed, smooth; flowers large, white, in short racemes or bunches of 6-10; fruit large, top-shaped. - Pea...
-(46) Cotoneaster
C. vulgaris: shrub; leaves ovate or orbicular; flowers small, greenish-white, solitary, or in short drooping racemes on short leafy branches; fruit small, reddish. - Limestone cliffs, Carnarvonshire. ...
-(47) Saxifraga. Saxifrage
* Leaves opposite, densely crowded. S. oppositifolia: stems creeping; leaves small, opposite, obovate, overlapping, fringed; flowers large, purple, solitary, on short erect branches, but so numerou...
-(48) Chrysosplenium. Golden Saxifrage
C. alternifolium: leaves alternate; flowers yellow, inconspicuous. - Moist shady places. Fl. May. C. oppositifolium: leaves opposite; flowers yellow, inconspicuous. - Moist shady places. Fl. May. ...
-(49) Rhamnus. Buckthorn
R. catharticus: shrub; leaves ovate, minutely toothed; branches often thorny; flowers small, green, dioecious, with four petals and four stamens; fruit black. - Thickets. Fl. May. It. Frangula: shr...
-(51) Montia. Blinks
M. fontana: subaquatic, annual; leaves opposite, obovate or spathulate; flowers white, inconspicuous. - Water Chick-weed. - By rills and in springy places. Fl. April, May. ...
-(52) Ribes. Currant. Branches without prickles
R. rubrum: shrub; leaves palmately 3-5-lobed, inodorous; flowers complete, greenish, in pendulous racemes, the stalks all short; berries smooth, red or white. - Common Currant. - Mountainous woods. Fl...
-(53) Arctostaphylos. Bearberry
A. Uva-ursi: shrub; leaves evergreen, obovate, entire, shining; flowers ovate, rosy, in short drooping terminal racemes; berries bright red. - Mountain heaths. Fl. May. A. alpina: shrub; leaves wit...
-(54) Vaccinium. Whortleberry
V. Myrtillus: shrub; stems acutely angular; leaves ovate, serrated; flowers solitary in the leaf-axils, nearly globular, pale greenish-white, tinged with red, nodding; fruit a roundish bluish-black be...
-(55) Adoxa. Moschatel
A. Moschatellina: root-leaves two or three times ternate, with 3-lobed segments; flowers small, pale-green, in little globular heads, terminating the short flowering stems. - Shady hedge-banks and gro...
-(56) Aspertlla. Woodruff
A. odorata: stems angular; leaves lance-shaped or obovate, 8 in a whorl; flowers small, white, 4-lobed, in cymes; fruit globular, hispid; plants smelling like new hay in drying. - Sweet Woodruff. - Dr...
-(57) Valerianella. Cornsalad
V. olitoria: annual; leaves oblong, entire, or with a few coarse teeth, those of the stem narrower and clasping; flowers inconspicuous, in little terminal cymes. - Lamb's Lettuce. - Cornfields. Fl. Ap...
-(58) Bellis. Daisy
B. perennis: leaves all from the root, obovate or oblong; flower-heads single, on radical peduncles; the ray-florets white, tinged with pink, those of the disk small, yellow, tubular. - Pastures and m...
-(59) Senecio. Groundsel
S. vulgaris: annual; leaves pinnatifid, toothed, smoothish; flower-heads without ray-florets, consisting wholly of yellow tubular disk-florets. - Simson. - A weed everywhere. Fl. at all seasons. ...
-(60) Tussilago. Coltsfoot
T. Farfara: leaves heart-shaped, angular or toothed, cottony beneath; flower-heads solitary, appearing before the leaves, with bright yellow ligulate ray-florets. - Moist waste places. Fl. March, Apri...
-(61) Doronicum. Leopard's-bane
D. Pardalianches: leaves heart-shaped, toothed, the radical ones stalked, the rest stem-clasping; flower-heads usually 3 to 5, with numerous long narrow ligulate ray-florets. - Mountain pastures. Fl. ...
-(62) Leontodon. Dandelion
L. Taraxacum: leaves all radical, milky, oblong-lanceolate, runcinately pinnatifid; flower-heads large, solitary, on hollow peduncles, with numerous yellow florets, all ligulate. - Cultivated and wast...
-(63) Primula. Primrose
P. vulgaris: leaves oblong-ovate, wrinkled, crenate, narrowing gradually into the footstalks; scapes single-flowered; flowers erect, pale yellow, with a flat limb. - Woods and thickets. Fl. April, May...
-(64) Vinca. Periwinkle
V. major: stems ascending; leaves broadly ovate, fringed; flowers large, purplish-blue, the calyx-segments ciliate at the margin. - Woods and shady banks. Fl May. V. minor: stems procumbent; leaves...
-(65) Gentiana. Gentian
G. verna: dwarf, tufted; lower leaves ovate or oblong, crowded; flowers large, vivid blue, salver-shaped, solitary on the short simple flower-stems, 5-lobed, with small intermediate bifid segments. - ...
-(66) Menyanthes. Buckbean
M. trifoliata: stems creeping or floating; leaves trifoliate, the leaflets obovate or oblong; flowers in upright racemes, bell-shaped, with five lobes, white, tinged externally with red, and fringed w...
-(67) Pulmonaria. Lungwort
P. officinalis: root-leaves ovate-oblong, usually spotted; flowers in terminal forked cymes, the corolla tubular-bell-shaped, purple; plant hairy. - Woods and thickets. Fl. May. ...
-(68) Symphytum. Comfrey
S. officinale: stems 2-3 feet high; leaves large, broad-lanceolate, tapering to a long point, roughly hairy, those of the stems decurrent; flowers in forked cymes on the branching stems, the corollas ...
-(69) Scrophularia. Figwort
S. vernalis: biennial; stems 2 feet high; leaves orbicular-cordate, pale green, coarsely toothed; peduncles mostly axillary, bearing a small cyme of yellow flowers. - Hedge-banks and thickets. Fl. Apr...
-(70) Lathraea. Toothwort
L. Squamaria: leafless; stems erect, scaly; flowers in a dense spike, nodding, flesh-coloured or slightly bluish, streaked with purple. - Dry shady places, on the roots of hazel and other trees. Fl. A...
-(71) Nepeta. Cat Mint
N. Glechoma: stems creeping and rooting; leaves orbicular crenate; flowers blue, in axillary whorls of about 6, the corolla-tube twice as long as the calyx. - Ground Ivy or Ale-hoof. - Hedge-banks. Fl...
-(73) Ajuga. Bugle
* Flowers axillary, growing in pseudo-whorls. A. reptans: glabrous or slightly hairy; stem forming creeping runners; leaves obovate, entire or coarsely toothed; flowers blue, the upper whorls crowded,...
-(74) Daphne
D. Mezereum: shrub; leaves deciduous, narrow-oblong; flowers purple or white, sweet-scented, in clusters of 2-3 along the preceding years' wood before the leaves appear; berries red or yellow. - Spurg...
-(75) Ulmus. Elm
U. montana: tree; leaves obovate cuspidate, doubly coarse-toothed, scabrous; flowers in dense clusters before the leaves, reddish, succeeded by the flat winged fruits, slightly notched at the top, the...
-(77) Hippophae. Sallow Thorn
H. rhamnoides: shrub, clothed with leprous scales; leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate, entire; flowers dioecious, very small and inconspicuous, the females succeeded by small yellowish berries. - Sea...
-(78) Buxus. Box
B. sempervirens: shrub; leaves evergreen, ovate, convex, shining; flowers small, green, sessile. - Chalky hills. Fl. April. ...
-(79) Empetrum. Crowberry
E. nigrum: dwarf shrub; leaves small, crowded, evergreen, linear-oblong; flowers quite inconspicuous; fruits black. - Crakeberry. - Mountain heaths. Fl. May. ...
-(80) Myrica. Gale
M. Gale: shrub; leaves deciduous, lanceolate, serrated, tapering and entire at the base, sweet-scented; catkins short, sessile along the ends of the branches, appearing before the leaves. - Sweet Gale...
-(81) Alnus. Alder
A. glutinosa: tree; leaves roundish, wedge-shaped, obtuse, wavy, serrated, glutinous, deciduous; catkins 2-3 together in loose terminal clusters; the males long, pendent, the females ovate or oblong, ...
-(82) Betula. Birch
B. alba: tree; leaves deciduous, ovate-deltoid, varying to broadly cordate, and with a rhomboidal tendency, acute, unequally serrated, glabrous, often with resinous spots; male catkins cylindrical, dr...
-(83) Salix. Willow
* Male and female catkins on short leafy shoots. S. pentandra: small tree; leaves thick, smooth, shining, deciduous, broadly lanceolate or ovate, pointed, finely toothed; catkins cylindrical, loose...
-(84) Populus. Poplar
P. alba: tree; leaves deciduous, cordate-ovate, angularly toothed, snow-white and densely downy beneath ; catkins sessile, about two inches long. - White Poplar or Abele. The Grey Poplar is a variety ...
-(85) Fagus. Beech
F. sylvatica: tree; leaves deciduous, ovate, obscurely toothed, silky when young, afterwards glabrous; male catkins globular on pendulous stalks, females erect globular softly hairy. - Woods. - Fl. Ap...
-(86) Quercus. Oak
Q. Robur: tree; leaves deciduous, cuneately oblong, irregularly sinuated or almost pinnatifid, sessile or shortly stalked; fruits clustered above the middle of a long peduncle (2-6 inches long). - Woo...
-(87) Corylus. Hazel
C. Avellana: shrub or small tree; leaves deciduous, roundish heart-shaped, pointed, obscurely lobed, doubly coarse toothed; male catkins long drooping cylindrical; females resembling ovate leaf-buds, ...
-(88) Carpinus. Hornbeam
C. Betulus: tree; leaves deciduous, ovate acute, parallel-veined, plaited when young; catkins drooping, about 1 1/2 inch long, the female ones slender, often several inches long when in fruit; fruit-b...
-(89) Pinus. Pine
P. sylvestris: tree; leaves evergreen, rigid, subulate, growing in pairs, each pair surrounded by a membranous sheath; male catkins small, oblong, clustered; young cones small ovate-conical stalked re...
-(90) Juniperus. Juniper
J. communis: shrub; leaves evergreen, linear, spreading, with a prickly point, growing in whorls of three; catkins minute, axillary; fruits globose, dark purple. - Calcareous hills and downs. Fl. May....
-(91) Taxus. Yew
T. baccata: tree; leaves evergreen, crowded, linear, disposed in two ranks so as to form flattened spray; catkins small, axillary; fruit roundish, bright red, forming a fleshy cup around the hard seed...
-(92) Arum. Cuckoo-pint
A. maculatum: tuberous; leaves ovately halberd-shaped or almost arrow-shaped, entire, often purple-spotted; spathe obliquely campanulate, pale-green, contracted above the base, the limb tapering to a ...
-(93) Trichonema
T. Bulbocodrum: bulb-tuberous, dwarf; leaves narrow-linear or grass-like, longer than the flower-stalks; flowers solitary, erect, pale purplish-blue, with a yellow centre. - Sandy grassy hillocks near...
-(94) Crocus
C. vernus: bulb-tuberous, dwarf; leaves narrow-linear, grassy; flowers solitary, bluish-purple, with rich orange wedge-shaped jagged stigmas. - Meadows, rare. Fl. March. ...
-(95) Narcissus
N. Pseudo-Narcissus: bulbous; leaves broadly linear, blunt, not keeled; flowers solitary, large, scentless, with a broad deep yellow tubular coronet as long as the segments, which are paler. - Daffodi...
-(97) Leucojum. Snowflake
L. aestivum: bulbous; leaves broadly linear; flowers several, elevated on a scape, drooping, the segments nearly equal, white, with slight greenish tips. - Moist meadows. Fl. May. ...
-(98) Neottia
N. Nidus-avis: leafless, the stems clothed with pale brown scales; flowers in a dense terminal spike, dingy-brown. - Shady woods. - Fl. May, June. ...
-(99) Orchis
* Spur very short, reduced to a small pouch. O. ustulata: tuberous, the tubers entire; leaves lanceolate; spike dense, 1-2 inches long j flowers small, the lip not longer than the sepals, white wit...
-(100) Ophrys. Insect Orchis
O. muscifera: tuberous; slender; flowers few, small; sepals greenish; lip oblong, considerably lengthened beyond the sepals, purplish-brown, with pale blue or white central marks, convex, with the lat...
-(101) Cypripedmm. Lady's Slipper
C. Calceolus: leaves large, ovate, pointed, ribbed; flowers 1-2; sepals broadly lanceolate, and as well as the linear petals, brown-purple; lip large inflated yellow, netted with dark veins. - Mountai...
-(102) Ruscus. Butcher's Broom
It. aculeatus: shrub-like; leaves (or flattened shoots) evergreen, ovate with a prickly point; flowers small, white, the axillary pedicel adnate halfway along the leaf, so that the flower appears to g...
-(103) Polygcnatum. Solomon's-seal
P. multiflorum.: stem round, 2 feet high, arching; leaves alternate, ovate-oblong; flowers axillary, on short branched one- or many-flowered peduncles, drooping, white with greenish tips; filaments ha...
-(104) Fritillaria. Fritillary
F. Meleagris: bulbous; stem with 3-4 linear-lanceolate leaves, and a terminal drooping flower of a dull red brighter inside, marked with chequered lines and spots. - SnakeVhead or Chequered Daffodil. ...
-(105) Tulipa. Tulip
T. sylvestris: bulbous; leaves 1-3, lanceolate, glaucous; flower terminal, yellow, slightly fragrant, drooping in the bud, nearly erect when mature. - Chalk-pits and pastures. Fl. April. ...
-(106) Gagea
G. lutea: bulbous, dwarf; leaves one, rarely two, linear-lanceolate; flowers 3-4, corymbosely racemed, yellow, star-like; the leafy bracts as long as the pedicels or longer. - Groves and pastures. Fl....
-(107) Convallaria
C. majalis: leaves oblong, stalked, usually two; peduncle leafless, radical, shorter than the leaves, terminating in a loose raceme of smallish white drooping globosely bell-shaped flowers, which are ...
-(108) Muscari. Grape Hyacinth
M. racemosa: bulbous, dwarf; leaves narrow-linear, thick -ish, channeled, recurved, longer than the scape; flowers in a close terminal raceme or head, nodding, small, dark blue, ovate, the uppermost p...
-(110) Scilla. Squill
S. verna: bulbous, dwarf; leaves narrow-linear, channeled; flowers small, erect, blue, in short terminal corymbose racemes, the pedicels furnished with a linear bract. - Maritime cliffs. - Fl. April. ...
-(111) Ornithogalum
O. umbellatum: bulbous, dwarf; leaves long, linear, flaccid; flowers corymbose, on a short scape, shorter than the leaves, white with green streaks outside. - Star of Bethlehem. - Meadows and pastures...
-(112) Luzula. Wood-rush
L. campestris: leaves flat, grass-like, fringed with long white hairs; flowers collected 6-8 together in close ovoid heads or clusters, 3-6 of which are arranged to form a panicle, the upper head sess...
-(113) Carex. Sedge
* Spikes or flower-clusters simple, solitary. C. dioica: creeping, dioecious, grass-like, 6-8 inches high; female spikes shorter, ovoid. - Spongy bogs. Fl. May, June. ** Spikelets arranged in a ...
-(114) Sesleria. Moor-grass
S. coerulea: dwarf, densely tufted; stem 6-12 inches high, supporting a solitary ovate-oblong spike-like panicle, 1/2-3/4 inch long, of a bluish-grey. - Alpine limestone rocks. Fl. April to June. ...
-(115) Anthoxanthum. Vernal-grass
A. odoratum: stems 1-2 feet high, tufted; spike-like panicle, l 1/2-2 inches long; herbage fragrant when withering having the well-known smell of new hay, which is attributable to this common pasture ...
-(116) Chamagrostis
C. minima: annual, tufted, 2-3 inches high; spikelets small, purplish, almost sessile, in a simple slender spike, 1/2 inch long. - Sandy pastures on the coast. Fl. March, April. ...
-(117) Aira. Hair-grass
A. praecox: annual, tufted, 3-6 inches high; panicle contracted, 1/2-1 inch long. - Dry gravelly ground. Fl. April, May. ...
-(118) Poa. Meadow-grass
* Rootstock tufted. P. annua: annual, stems spreading below, 3-] 2 inches high; panicle loosely spreading, 1 1/2-3 inches long; florets not webbed. - Meadows and cultivated ground everywhere. Fl. a...
-Summer Flowers
Behold those brightly-tinted Roses, How fresh the blush upon their silken leaves, With the clear dewdrop glancing in the sun As bright as diamond, with its ray intense, Shining the most when most 'ti...
-Summer Flowers. Part 2
* Nymphoea alba - Plate 7 B. One interesting peculiarity has been recorded of the White Water Lily, namely, that its flowers expand only in bright weather, and close towards evening, when they eith...
-Summer Flowers. Part 3
The Malvaceous family, another group of the same great subdivision as the foregoing, is represented by the Common Mallow found abundantly in waste places. This plant is a biennial, that is, of...
-Summer Flowers. Part 4
One more illustration of the Thalamiflores, a flower of very irregular structure, must be noted. In moist shady places, chiefly in the north of England and in Wales, may be found in the height of summ...
-Summer Flowers. Part 5
* Lathyrus pratensis - Plate 12 D. Lythrum Salicaria - Plate 12 A. The Water Chickweed,* an insignificant succulent annual, found in springy places and on the edges of rills, represents th...
-Summer Flowers. Part 6
In the family of the Umbellifers, or Umbel-bearing plants, we have further illustrations of this epigynous group of Calyciflores. One of them, called the Hemlock Drop wort,* a tall perennial herb, gro...
-Summer Flowers. Part 7
* Cornus sanguinea - Plate 13 D. Lonicera Periclymenwm - Plate 14 A. The Ladies' Bedstraw* is one of a genus of weak straggling herbs, representing the Galiaceous family; which itself is...
-Summer Flowers. Part 8
* Cardans nutans - Plate 15 A. These flowers consist of a calyx adherent to the ovary, and having five narrow spreading lobes; a regular bell-shaped five-lobed corolla, inserted within the lobes of...
-Summer Flowers. Part 9
* Polemonium coeruleum - Plate 16 B. The Convolvulaceous family must be known to every one, being rendered familiar in our gardens by the fine exotic genus Pharbitis, which contains the annual Conv...
-Summer Flowers. Part 10
The Plumbaginaceous family, represented by the Common Thrift, belongs to this same regular-flowered series. This well-known plant, a sea-side resident, and frequently used as an edging plant in...
-Summer Flowers. Part 11
* Orohanclie minor - Plate 17 B. * Salvia pratensis - Plate 17 D. Closely allied to the Labiates is the Verbenaceous family, represented by the Common Vervain,* a weed plentiful by roadsides and...
-Summer Flowers. Part 12
* Pint's sylvestris - Plate 19 C. Separated by some botanists from the great group of Monocotyledons, with which they are associated by others, is a small intermediate group, called Dictyogens, the...
-Summer Flowers. Part 13
Another of the same series, is the Reed-mace or Cat's-tail, often called Bulrush,* a type of the Typhaceous family, in which the flowers, which are collected into dense spikes, have no perianth, but a...
-Summer Flowers. Part 14
* Potamogeton natans - Plate 21 D. Acorns Calamus - Plate 21 C. Somewhat similar to this in the minutiae of its structure, though differing considerably in aspect, is the Common Rush (Juncu...
-Summer Flowers. Part 15
* Ophrys apifera - Plate 20 C. Of the Liliaceous family, which differs from many of the foregoing Monocotyledons in having a superior ovary, the well-known Lily-of-the-Valley* affords a good exampl...
-Summer Flowers. Part 16
* Bromus mollis - Plate 22 B. Another illustration is afforded by the Common Reed,* which belongs to a different subdivision of the family. This is a stout perennial grass, with a culm varying from...
-Summary Of Summer Flowers
I. - Groups And Orders Exogenous Plants Or Dicotyledons Leaves with netted veins. Flowers usually quinary - the parts in fives, or quaternary - the parts in fours. Embryos with two (rarely more)...
-Summary Of Summer Flowers. Continued
25. Haloragaceous plants - herbs; leaves whorled; flowers minute, the calyx four-lobed or wanting; stamens 8-6-4, or sometimes reduced to one; fruit dry, containing a solitary seed. 26. Cornaceous ...
-Dictyogenous Plants
Leaves with netted veins. Flowers usually ternary - the parts in threes. Embryos as in Endogens. This group consists of the Orders numbered 60 and 61. * Perianth inferior. 60. Trilliaceous plant...
-Dictyogenous Plants. Part 2
2. Nymphaeaceous Plants. Nymphaeaceae (10) Nymphaea - sepals four, greenish outside; petals numerous, white. (11) Nuphar - sepals 5-6, yellow; petals several, much smaller, yellow. 3. Papaver...
-Dictyogenous Plants. Part 3
7. Fumariaceous Plants. Fumariaceae (41) Fumaria - upper petal spurred at the base; fruit an indehiscent one-seeded nut. (42) Corydalis - upper petal spurred at the base; pod twovalved, many-see...
-Dictyogenous Plants. Part 4
12. Elatinaceous Plants. Elatinaceae: (58) Elatine - capsule three- or four-celled, many-seeded. 13. Linaceous Plants. Linaceae: (59) Linum - sepals, petals, stamens, and styles, five each; c...
-Dictyogenous Plants. Part 5
20. Rosaceous Plants. Rosaceae * Petals four Jive or more. Fruit consisting of one or more follicles, containing 2-6 seeds, and invested by a dry calyx. (81) Spiraea - calyx five-clef...
-Dictyogenous Plants. Part 6
22. Saxifragaceous Plants. Saxieragaceae * Stamens ten. (96) Saxifraga - calyx five-cleft or five-parted; petals five; styles two, persistent, forming two beaks to the carpels. ** Stamens Jiv...
-Dictyogenous Plants. Part 7
1. Vittae short, clavate, single between the ribs (112) Sison - fruit ovate; carpels with five filiform equal ridges. 2. Vittae elongated, linear (113) Bunium - fruit oblong; carpels with fiv...
-Dictyogenous Plants. Part 8
28. Cucurbitaceoiis Plants. Cucurbitaceae (133) Bryonia - dioecious; styles three-cleft; fruit a globose threecelled berry. 29. Caprifoliaceous Plants. Caprifoliaceae * Style single, filifo...
-Dictyogenous Plants. Part 9
34. Lobeliaceous Plants. Lobeliaceae (178) Lobelia - corolla very irregular, split open on the upper side; anthers closely cohering. 35. Campanulaceous Plants. Campanulaceae * Corolla cut int...
-Dictyogenous Plants. Part 10
42. Aquifoliaceous Plants. Aquifoliaceae (197) Ilex - flowers small, clustered in the axils of the alternate leaves. 43. Oleaceous Plants. Oleaceae (198) Fraxinus - calyx and corolla none; le...
-Dictyogenous Plants. Part 11
50. Verbenaceous Plants. Verbenaceae (234) Verbena - calyx five-toothed; corolla with distinct tube, and unequally five-cleft spreading limb. 51. Scrophulariaceous Plants. Scrophulariaceae * ...
-Dictyogenous Plants. Part 12
54. Ceratophyllaceous Plants. Ceratophyllaceae (254) Ceratophyllum - leaves whorled, 2-3 times furcately dissected. (255) Callitriche - leaves opposite, entire. 55. Urticaceous Plants. Urtica...
-Dictyogenous Plants. Part 13
69. Liliaceous Plants. Liliace * Stem leafy and branching. (286) Asparagus - perianth bell-shaped, tubular below; stamens six; stigmas three, reflexed; flowers by abortion, dioecious. ...
-Dictyogenous Plants. Part 14
73. Graminaceous Plants. Graminaceae * Spikelets of one perfect terminal flower, with or without a perfect male flower below it. Flowering glumes of a firmer texture than the empty ones ...
-(1) Clematis. Traveller's Joy
C. Vitalba: climbing shrub; leaves pinnate, with about five cordately-ovate stalked leaflets, the stalks forming tendrils; flowers greenish-white, in loose panicles; carpels with long feathery awns. -...
-(2) Thalictrum. Meadow Rue
* Panicle scarcely more than a simple raceme. T. alpinum: stem dwarf, simple, almost leafless; leaves twice ternate, bearing small, roundish, crenate or lobed leaflets; flowers few, drooping; sepal...
-(3) Adonis. Pheasant's Eye
A. autumnalis: annual, erect, one foot high, glabrous or slightly downy; leaves triply pinnatifid, with narrow linear segments; flowers bright scarlet, with a dark spot at the base of the petals; carp...
-(4) Eanunculus. Crowfoot
* Flowers white; (aquatic plants). R. hederaceus: plant floating or spreading on mud; leaves roundish, ivy-like, with 3-5 broad, shallow lobes; flowers very small, white; carpels and receptacle gla...
-(5) Trollius. Globe Flower
T. europseus: stems erect, glabrous, 1-2 feet high, simple, or nearly so; root-leaves palmately divided into three or five segments, which are lobed and cut, those of the stem few, small, nearly sessi...
-(6) Aquilegia. Columbine
A. vulgaris: stem 1 1/2-3 feet high, leafy; radical leaves long-stalked, twice ternate, with broad, three-lobed, crenate, glaucous-green segments; flowers in a loose panicle, large, drooping, blue or ...
-(7) Delphinium. Larkspur
D. Consolida: annual, erect, about one foot high, branched, nearly glabrous; leaves stalked, deeply divided into linear segments, the upper ones sessile; flowers blue, sometimes reddish or white, in l...
-(8) Aconitum. Monk's-hood
A. Napellus: stem erect, 1 1/2-2 feet high; leaves deeply 5-7-clcft, with linear pointed segments, stalked, or the upper ones nearly sessile, dark green; flowers, dense, racemose, large, dark blue, on...
-(9) Paeonia. Paeony
P. corallina: stem 1-2 feet high; leaves twice ternate, the segments ovate, entire, or divided into two or three deep lobes; flowers deep red; carpels large, thick, downy, and when ripe, more or less ...
-(10) Nymphaea. Water Lily
N. alba: leaves deeply cordate, glabrous. 6-8 inches in diameter; flowers lying on the surface of the water, white, scentless, 3-4 inches in diameter. - Lakes and slow rivers. Fl. July. ...
-(11) Nuphar. Yellow Water Lily
N. lutea: leaves oblong-cordate; flowers yellow, raised two or three inches above the water, faintly scented, the concave sepals assuming a somewhat globular form; petals and stamens very numerous, sc...
-(12) Papaver. Poppy
* Leaves glaucous, toothed or slightly lobed. P. somniferum: annual, erect, glabrous, or with a few hairs on the peduncles, scarcely branched, two feet high or more; leaves clasping the stem by the...
-(13) Meconopsis
M. eambrica: stems erect, one foot high; leaves long-stalked, pale green, slightly hairy, pinnate, the segments ovate or lanceolate, toothed or pinnately lobed; flowers rather large, pale yellow, on l...
-(14) Chelidonium. Celandine
C. majus: stems erect, slender, branching, 1-2 feet high, full of a yellow fetid juice; leaves thin, glaucous underneath, once or twice pinnate, the segments ovate, coarsely toothed or lobed; flowers ...
-(15) Grlaucium. Horned Poppy
G. luteum: annual or biennial; stem 1-3 feet high, with hard spreading branches, everywhere glaucous; leaves thick, pinnately lobed or divided, the lobes ovate or lanceolate, sinuate or lobed, rough w...
-(16) Helianthemum. Rockcist
* Annual herb. H. guttatum: annual, erect, hairy, often branched at the base, 2-3 inches to one foot high; leaves narrow-oblong or lanceolate, or the lower ones obovate and very obtuse, upper ones ...
-(17) Reseda. Mignonette
* Leaves undivided. It. Luteola: annual or biennial; stems 1-2 feet high, erect, glabrous; leaves linear or lanceolate, 2-3 inches long, slightly waved on the edges; flowers yellowish green, in lon...
-(19) Hesperis. Rocket
H. matronalis: stems 2-3 feet high, slightly branched; leaves shortly stalked, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, 2-3 inches long, the upper ones smaller; flowers lilac, usually fragrant in the evening; ...
-(20) Erysimum. Treacle Mustard
E. cheiranthoid.es: annual; stem 1-2 feet high, stiff, erect, slightly hoary with appressed hairs; leaves numerous, broadly lanceolate, entire or slightly toothed, tapering into a stalk; flowers small...
-(21) Sisymbrium
* Leaves deeply pinnatifid. S. officinale: annual; stems a foot high or more, erect, more or less downy, with rigid spreading branches; leaves deeply pinnatifid, with few lanceolate toothed lobes, ...
-(22) Nasturtium. Water-cress
* Flowers white. N. officinale: stem much branched, short and creeping, or floating in shallow water; leaves pinnate, with distinct segments, the terminal one usually larger, ovate or orbicular; fl...
-(23) Barbarea. Winter-cress
B. strieta: biennial; stem 1-2 feet long; leaves lyrate, the upper pair of lobes small, much narrower than the large oblong-ovate terminal lobe, uppermost undivided, toothed; flowers small, yellow, th...
-(24) Turritis. Tower Mustard
T. glabra: annual or biennial; stem two feet or more high, erect, glabrous except a few hairs at the base, usually glaucous; leaves spreading, obovate-oblong, sinuate or pinnately lobed, with a few fo...
-(25) Arabis. Rock-cress
* Stem-leaves undivided, rounded or auricled at the base. A. hirsuta: annual or biennial; stem a foot high or more, rather stiff, erect, usually simple, rough with short hairs; leaves spreading, ob...
-(26) Cardamine. Bitter-cress
C. impatiens: annual; stem 1 1/2 foot high, stiff, erect, leafy, simple, or with a few erect branches; leaves pinnate, with numerous lanceolate or almost ovate segments, often deeply toothed; petals v...
-(27) Brassica
* Valves of the pod three-ribbed. B. monensis: biennial, or short-lived perennial; stem prostrate, glabrous, sometimes barely six inches high, the leaves mostly radical; leaves pinnatifid or pinnat...
-(29) Diplotaxis
D. tenuifolia: stems 1-2 feet high, glabrous and somewhat glaucous, emitting a disagreeable smell when rubbed; leaves irregularly pinnate, with few lanceolate or oblong, entire or coarsely-toothed seg...
-(30) Raphanus. Radish
R. Raphanistrum: annual; stem erect or spreading, 1-2 feet high, much branched, with a few stiff hairs at the base; leaves pinnately divided or lobed, the terminal segment large, obovate or oblong, ro...
-(31) Cakile. Sea Rocket
C. maritima: stems hard at the base, with loose, straggling, glabrous branches, a foot long or more; leaves few, thick, fleshy, with few distant oblong or linear lobes; flowers purplish, not unlike th...
-(32) Crambe. Sea Kale
C. maritima: stems two feet high, branched; leaves stalked, large, thick, smooth, glaucous, roundish, waved, coarsely-toothed, the upper ones few and smaller; panicle large, much branched, the flowers...
-(33) Senebiera
S. Coronopus: annual; stems at first forming a close tuft, afterwards spreading; leaves once or twice pinnately divided, the segments linear or wedge-shaped, entire or toothed; racemes forming close s...
-(34) Isatis. Woad
I. tinctoria: stem 1 1/2-3 feet high, branched in the upper part, glabrous; leaves obovate or oblong, 2-4 inches long, coarsely toothed and stalked, the upper ones lanceolate, with prominent auricles;...
-(35) Iberis. Candytuft
I. amara: annual; stem erect, 1/2-1 foot high, with a few erect branches, forming a terminal flat corymb; leaves oblong-lanceolate, with a few coarse teeth; flowers white; pod nearly orbicular, the lo...
-(36) Lepidium. Cress
* Pods winged at top. L. campestre: annual; stem about a foot high, hoary with minute hairs, erect or nearly so, branched in the upper part; leaves stalked, oblong, entire or pinnatifid, with a lar...
-(37) Capsella
C. Bursa-pastoris: annual; root-leaves spreading, pinna-tifid; stem 1/4-1 foot high, rather rough, with a few oblong or lanceolate, entire or toothed, clasping leaves, having projecting auricles; pods...
-(38) Cochlearia. Scurvy Grass
C. officinalis: annual or biennial; stems seldom above six inches long, diffuse, glabrous, and somewhat fleshy; leaves stalked, orbicular or reniform, the upper ones ovate or oblong, sinuate, sessile;...
-(39) Armoracia. Horse-radish
A. rusticana: stems 2-3 feet high, erect; leaves on long stalks, 1/2-1 foot long, and 4-6 inches broad, sinuate and toothed at the edges, glabrous but rough, the lower stem-leaves often deeply toothed...
-(40) Camelina. Gold of Pleasure
C. sativa: annual; stem simple or slightly branched, 1-2 feet high; lowest leaves stalked, lanceolate, entire, 1-2 inches long, the upper ones sessile, clasping the stem with pointed auricles; pods ob...
-(41) Fumaria. Fumitory
F. officinalis: annual, tufted or diffuse, 1/2-1 foot high; leaves much divided into numerous flat segments, generally three-lobed, the lobes broadly lanceolate or oblong; flowers in racemes of 1-2 in...
-(42) Corydalis
C. lutea: stems 6-8 inches high; leaves pale green, much divided, the segments ovate or wedge-shaped, cut into two or three lobes; flowers in short racemes, pale yellow, with a short broad spur; pod t...
-(43) Frankenia
F. laevis: diffuse, much branched, spreading 6-8 inches, glabrous or nearly so; leaves crowded in little opposite clusters along the branches, small,rather thick, and appearing linear from their edges...
-(44) Tamarix. Tamarisk
T. anglica: shrub, 3-6 feet high, with slender erect branches; leaves crowded, scale-like; flowers pink or whitish, small, crowded in spikes 1/2-1 1/2 inch long, often forming branched terminal panicl...
-(45) Dianthus. Pink
* Flowers clustered, the scales as long as the calyx. D. prolifer: annual; stems 1/2-1 foot high, stiff, erect, wiry, glabrous, simple or nearly so; leaves few, narrow, erect flowers small, in comp...
-(46) Silene. Catch fly
* Leaves smooth. S. acaulis: dense moss-like tufts, often many inches in diameter, much branched, the very short branches crowned by dense spreading clusters of short, linear, glabrous leaves; flow...
-(47) Lychnis
* Calyx-lobes shorter than the petals. L. vespertina: biennial; stem 1-2 feet high, coarse, hairy, more or less viscid, loosely branched; leaves oval-oblong, usually pointed, the lower ones stalked; f...
-(48) Sagina. Pearlwort
S. nodosa: tufted, often flowering the first year; stems numerous, decumbent, or nearly erect, 2-4 inches high, sparingly branched; leaves small, subulate, those of the stem much shorter, with little ...
-(49) Alsine
A. tenuifolia: annual; stem 3-4 inches high, slender, erect, much branched, dichotomous, with the small white flowers in the forks, glabrous or minutely downy; leaves subulate; sepals narrow; petals o...
-(50) Arenaria. Sandwort
* Leaves fleshy; capsule three five-valved. A. peploides: stems short, procumbent, usually forked from a creeping root-stock; leaves numerous, somewhat fleshy, ovate or elliptical, half an inch lon...
-(51) Stellaria. Starwort
S. graminea: stems diffuse or nearly erect, often 1-2 feet long, glabrous, slender, quadrangular; leaves sessile, linear-lanceolate, pointed; flowers small, white, in long loose panicles, which often ...
-(52) Malachium
M. aquaticum: stems weak, often a foot or more in length; lower leaves small, cordate-ovate, acuminate, stalked, the upper ones sessile or stem-clasping, 1-2 inches long; flowers white, in the forks o...
-(53) Spergula. Spurry
S. arvensis: annual; stems 1/2-1 foot high, slender, branching at the base, erect or ascending, glabrous or slightly downy; leaves almost subulate, 1-2 inches long, 6-8 together in two opposite cluste...
-(54) Spergularia. Sand-spurry
S. rubra: annual or biennial; stems numerous, branching from the base, forming spreading or prostrate tufts, 3-4-6 inches long, glabrous; leaves narrow-linear, the scarious stipules at the base conspi...
-(55) Polycarpon
P. tetraphyllum: annual; stems glabrous, much branched, 3-4 inches long, spreading or prostrate; leaves obovate or oblong, really opposite but placed two pairs so close together as to assume the appea...
-(56) Corrigiola
C. littoralis: annual; stems short, procumbent or ascending, slender, smooth; leaves linear or oblong, obtuse, tapered at the base; flowers small, white, crowded in little cymose heads at the ends of ...
-(57) Illecebrum
I. verticillatum: annual; stems prostrate, glabrous, much branched, the branches 1-3 inches high, ascending; leaves small, opposite, obovate or roundish; flowers white, in whorls in the leaf-axils. - ...
-(58) Elatine
E. hexandra: annual; forming small, matted, creeping tufts, often under water, the stems 1/2-2 inches long; leaves small, obovate or oblong, tapering at the base; flowers globular, with three rose-col...
-(59) Linum. Flax
* Leaves scattered; flowers blue. L. usitatissimum: annual; stems 1-2 feet high, erect, glabrous, usually branched only at the top; leaves alternate, erect, narrow-lanceolate, pointed, entire; flow...
-(61) Geranium. Crane's-bill
* Perennials with large flowers. G. sanguineum: stems numerous, a foot long, decumbent, rarely erect, with spreading hairs, leafy; leaves nearly orbicular, divided to the base in 5-7 segments, whic...
-(62) Erodium
E. cicutarium: annual; forming a dense hairy tuft, the stems short, or sometimes 1/2-1 foot long; leaves mostly radical, on long stalks, pinnate, the leaflets deeply pinnatifid, with narrow more or le...
-(63) Hypericum. St. John's-wort
* Stamens pentadelpJious, i.e. in five groups or clusters. H. Androssemum: undershrub; stems numerous, erect, 1 -2 feet high, simple or slightly branched; leaves sessile, ovate, obtuse, corda...
-(64) Malva. Mallow
* Stems decumbent or spreading at the base. M. rotundifolia: annual; stems procumbent, 1/2-1 foot long, tough, slightly downy; leaves long-stalked, orbicular, cordate at the base, with 5-7 short an...
-(65) Althaea
A. officinalis: stems erect, branched, 2-3 feet high, covered, as well as the foliage, with soft, velvety down; leaves stalked, broadly ovate, undivided or three-lobed; flowers pale rose-colour, ou sh...
-(66) Lavatera
L. arborea: undershrub; stem woody at the base, 1-5 feet high; leaves long-stalked, broadly orbicular, palmately divided into 5-9 broad, short, crenate lobes, softly downy on both sides; flowers numer...
-(67) Tilia. Lime Tree
T. europsea: tree; leaves stalked, broadly heart-shaped or nearly orbicular, often oblique, pointed, serrate on the edge, glabrous above, downy underneath, especially in the angles of the principal ve...
-(68) Impatiens
I. Noli-me-tangere: annual; stems 1-2 feet high, erect, glabrous, branching, rather succulent, and swollen at the nodes; leaves stalked, ovate, pointed, toothed, pale green, flaccid; peduncles axillar...
-(69) Ononis
O. arvensis: undershrub, low, spreading, much branched, sometimes nearly erect, one foot high or more, with soft spreading hairs, glutinous; leaves trifoliolate, the leaflets obovate or oblong; flower...
-(70) Anthyllis. Kidney Vetch
A. Vulneraria: stems spreading or ascending, 1/2-1 foot long, clothed with short, silky hairs; leaves pinnate; leaflets narrow and entire; flower-heads usually in pairs at the ends of the branches, ea...
-(71) Medicago. Medick
* Flowers purple. M. sativa: stem erect, 1-1 1/2 foot high; leaves trifoliolate; leaflets obovate-oblong, dentate above; flowers almost always violet or blue; pod spirally twisted so as to form 2-3...
-(72) Melilotus. Melilot
M. officinalis: annual or biennial; steins erect, 2-4 feet high, branched, glabrous; leaves distant, on long leafstalks; the leaflets obovate or nearly orbicular, those of the upper leaves narrower, o...
-(73) Trigonella. Trigonel
T. ornithopodioides: annual; stems thickly matted, spreading, rarely more than 2-3 inches long, glabrous; leaflets inserted close together at the summit of the stalk, obovate or obcordate, toothed; fl...
-(74) Trifolium. Clover
* Flowers purple or red. T. pratense: stems decumbent or nearly erect, 1-2 feet long, hairy; stipules large, ovate, bristle-pointed; leaflets obovate or obcordate; flowers reddish-purple, in dense ...
-(75) Lotus. Birds'-foot Trefoil
L. corniculatus: stems decumbent or ascending, 1/2-2 feet long; leaflets obovate, pointed, the stipules ovate; peduncles much longer than the leaves; umbels of 5-10 bright yellow flowers, the standard...
-(77) Lathyrus. Pea or Vetchling
* Leafstalks without real leaflets. Flowers red. L. Nissolia: annual; stems erect, glabrous, branching from the base, about one foot high; leaves reduced to linear, grass-like, flattened le...
-(78) Astragalus. Milk Vetch
* Flowers bluish-purple. A. hypoglottis: stem prostrate, branching at the base, 2-6 inches long, slightly hairy; stipules free from the leafstalk, more or less united together on the opposite side ...
-(79) Oxytropis
* Flowers yellow. O. campestris: stem short, tufted, scarcely lengthening into shortly ascending branches; leaflets 10-15 pairs, with an odd one, oblong or lanceolate, hairy; flowers in short spike...
-(80) Onobrychis. Saintfoin
O. sativa: stems ascending, 1-2 feet long; stipules brown, finely pointed; leaflets numerous, oblong, glabrous above; peduncles longer than the leaves, bearing a spike of pale pink flowers, at first c...
-(81) Spiraea
S. Ulmaria: stems erect, rather stout, 2-3 feet high, glabrous, reddish; leaves large, interruptedly pinnate, with 5-9 ovate or broadly-lanceolate, irregularly-toothed segments, green above, soft and ...
-(82) Potentilla. Potentil
* Leaves digitate. Petals usually four. P. Tormentilla: stems erect, or procumbent from a thick woody rootstock, forked, silky-hairy; lower leaves often shortly stalked, upper ones always s...
-(83) Sibbaldia
S. procumbens: stem short, dense, spreading, tufted; leaves ternate, the leaflets obovate or wedge-shaped, three-toothed at the end; flower-stems short, almost leafless, bearing a cyme of small flower...
-(84) Greum. Avens
G. urbanum: stem erect, slightly branched, 1-2 feet high; stipules large and leaflike, coarsely toothed; leaves interruptedly pinnate, with several large segments intermixed with small ones, the upper...
-(85) Dryas
D. octoretala: stems short, much branched, prostrate or creeping, forming dense spreading tufts; leaves crowded, oblong, deeply and regularly crenate, shining green above, white and downy beneath; ped...
-(86) Agrimonia. Agrimony
A. Eupatoria: stems 2-3 feet high, clothed, like the leaves, with soft hairs; leaves pinnate, with 5-9 ovate, coarsely-toothed leaflets, intermixed with smaller ones; spike long, leafless, each flower...
-(87) Fragaria. Strawberry
F. elatior: stem bearing few runners, which root and form new plants at the nodes, as in F. vesca, but taller, with fewer runners and flowers, usually entirely or partially unisexual; leaves ternate, ...
-(88) Rubus
It. Idaeus: stems biennial, erect, 3-4 feet high, armed with weak prickles; leaves pinnate, leaflets five in the lower, three in the upper ones, ovate or oblong, pointed, coarsely toothed, whitish und...
-(90) Sanguisorba. Great Burnet
S. officinalis: stem glabrous, erect, about two feet high; leaves chiefly radical, pinnate, with 9-13 ovate or oblong toothed leaflets; upper part of the stem almost leafless, divided into a few long ...
-(91) Poterium. Lesser or Salad Burnet
P. Sanguisorba: stem glabrous, seldom above a foot high; leaves pinnate; leaflets many, small, ovate, deeply-toothed; flower-heads small, almost globular, light green, seldom acquiring a purplish ting...
-(92) Tillaea
T. muscosa: stems 1-2 inches high, much branched, reddish, slender, succulent, crowded with flowers; leaves narrow-lanceolate or linear; flowers solitary in each axil, or several together in little cl...
-(93) Cotyledon. Navelwort
C. Umbilicus: stems erect, 1/2-1 foot high, simple or slightly branched; radical and lower leaves on long stalks, fleshy, orbicular, broadly crenate, more or less peltate; flowers in long racemes, pen...
-(94) Sedum
* Leaves with a flat expanded surface. S. Rhodiola: stems erect, stout, simple, 1/2-3/4 foot high, leafy to the top; leaves alternate, sessile, obovate or oblong, slightly toothed; flowers dioeciou...
-(95) Sempervivum. Houseleek
S. tectorum: barren shoots forming globular tufts; flowering stems stout, succulent, one foot high; leaves very thick, fleshy, ending in a short point, fringed; flowers pink, sessile along the spreadi...
-(96) Saxifraga. Saxifrage
* Flowers yellow. S. aizoides: flowering stems ascending about six inches high; leaves alternate, narrow, smooth, shining, entire, rarely with 1-2 teeth; flowers yellow, in a loose panicle of 3-12 ...
-(97) Drosera. Sundew
D. rotundifolia: leaves on long stalks, nearly orbicular, covered on the upper surface with long, red, viscid hairs, each bearing a small gland at the top; flower-stems slender, erect, glabrous, 2-6 i...
-(98) Lythnim. Loosestrife
L. Salicaria: stems erect, 2-4 feet high, slightly branched, glabrous or softly downy; leaves opposite, or in threes, sessile, clasping the stem, lanceolate, entire; flowers reddish-purple or pink, in...
-(100) Epilobium. Willow Herb
* Flowers somewhat irregular or unegual-petaled. E. angustifolium: stems simple or scarcely branched, 2-4 feet high, glabrous; leaves shortly stalked, lanceolate, entire; flowers large, purplish-re...
-(101) Oenothera. Evening Primrose
Ce. biennis: biennial; stems almost simple, 2-3 feet high, hairy; leaves ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, slightly toothed, hoary or downy; flowers yellow, large, fragrant, opening in the evening, form...
-(102) Circaea. Enchanter's Nightshade
C. Lutetiana: stems erect or shortly decumbent, rooting at the base, 1-1 1/2 feet high, clothed with short whitish hairs; leaves thin, stalked, broadly ovate, rather coarsely toothed; flowers white or...
-(103) Myriophyllum. Water Milfoil
M. spicatum: aquatic; stems immersed, ascending to the surface, more or less branched; leaves whorled along the whole length of the stem, the numerous capillary segments entire; flower-spike terminal,...
-(105) Cornus. Cornel
C. sanguinea: shrub, 5-6 feet high, erect; leaves opposite, broadly ovate, stalked, hoary or silky, with closely appressed hairs when young; glabrous when full grown; flowers numerous, forming termina...
-(106) Hydrocotyle. Pennywort
H. vulgaris: stems slender, creeping, rooting at every node, and emitting small tufts of leaves and flowers; leaves obicular, crenate or slightly lobed, attached by the centre to a rather long stalk; ...
-(107) Sanicula. Sanicle
S. europsea: leaves on long stalks, palmately 3-5-lobed, the lobes obovate or wedge-shaped, serrated; stems 1-1 1/2 feet high, bearing several capitate umbels in an irregular, slightly umbellate panic...
-(108) Eryngium. Eryngo
* Scales of the receptacle three-lohed. E. maritimum: stems stiff, erect, much branched, nearly a foot high, glabrous, bluish or glaucous; leaves stiff, broad, sinuate, divided into three broad, sh...
-(109) Cicuta. Cowbane
C. virosa: stem hollow, somewhat branched, 3-4 feet high; leaves twice ternate, with large narrow-lanceolate acute unequal-toothed segments; general umbels of 10-15 or more rays, the partial involucre...
-(110) Apium. Celery
A. graveolens: stems rather slender, branched, furrowed, glabrous, 1-2 feet high; leaves pinnate, with 3-5 broad cre-nate or three-lobed segments; umbels small, nearly sessile on the upper branches op...
-(112) Sison
S. Amomum: annual or biennial; stems erect, glabrous, two feet high or more, with many stiff, slender branches; leaves pinnate, the segments ovate or oblong, toothed or lobed; the upper leaves much sm...
-(113) Bunium. Earth-nut, or Pig-nut
B. rlexuosum: tuberous stems erect, slender, glabrous, 1-2 feet high, with a few forked branches; leaves few decaying early, thrice ternate, the divisions short, narrow, pointed, entire or three-lobed...
-(114) Sium. Water Parsnip
S. latifolium: stems glabrous, stout, erect, angular, 2-4 feet high; leaves pinnate, the lower very long, with 6-10 pairs of large ovate-lanceolate toothed segments; the upper shorter, with fewer and ...
-(115) Pimpinella. Burnet Saxifrage
P. Saxifraga: stems erect, 1-2 feet high, slightly branched, glabrous; leaves usually pinnate, with 7-9 pairs of broadly ovate or orbicular toothed segments, those of the stem bipin-natifid with linea...
-(116) Bupleurum
B. rotundifolium: annual; stems erect, stiff, glabrous, one foot or more high, branched above; leaves broadly ovate, the upper ones embracing the stem, and joined round the back of it, so that they ap...
-(117) Oenanthe
* Segments of the upper leaves few, long and linear. Gb. fistulosa: stems thick, hollow, erect, 2-3 feet high, slightly branched; radical leaves twice pinnate, with small cuneatc segments divided i...
-(118) Aethusa. Fool's Parsley
ae. Cynapium: annual; stems erect, glabrous, leafy, 1-2 feet high, with forked branches, emitting a nauseous smell when rubbed; leaves twice or thrice pinnate, the segments ovate-lanceolate, more or l...
-(119) Meum. Spignel
M. Athamanticum: stems 1-2 feet high, leaves mostly radical, tufted, bipinnate, their segments deeply cut into numerous very fine, short, bristle-like lobes, and appearing whorled or clustered along t...
-(120) Crithmum. Samphire
C. maritimum: stems glabrous, seldom above a foot high, almost woody at the base, the young branches, foliage, and umbels, thick and fleshy; leaves twice or thrice ternate, with few lanceolate linear ...
-(121) Pastinaca. Parsnip
P. sativa: annual or biennial; stem erect, 2-3 feet high; leaves pinnate, coarse, downy, with 5-9 sharply-toothed, and more or less lobed segments; upper leaves small and less divided; umbels of 8-12 ...
-(122) Heracleum. Cow Parsnip
H. Sphondylium: stems four feet high, coarse, rough with short stiff hairs; leaves very large, pinnate, with 3-7 large broad segments, which are three-lobed or pinnatifid and toothed; umbels large, fl...
-(123) Tordylium. Hartwort
T. maximum: annual; stems erect, two feet or more high, rough with short, stiff hairs; leaves pinnate, with 5-9 lanceolate, almost ovate, coarsely toothed segments; umbels terminal, of 8-10 short rays...
-(124) Coriandrum. Coriander
C. sativum: annual; stems erect, branching, glabrous, 1 - 1 1/2 feet high, emitting a very disagreeable smell when rubbed; lowest leaves once or twice pinnate, with broadly-ovate or cuneate, deeply cu...
-(125) Conium. Hemlock
C. maculatum: annual or biennial; stem erect, branching, 3-5 feet high, smooth, glaucous, spotted, emitting a nauseous smell when bruised; leaves large, much divided into numerous small ovate or lance...
-(126) Smyrnium. Alexanders
S. Olusatrum: annual or biennial; stems coarse, erect, 2-4 feet high, glabrous; lower leaves twice or thrice, upper ones once ternate, the segments broadly ovate, coarsely toothed or three-lobed; umbe...
-(127) Scandix. Shepherd's-needle
S. Pecten: annual; stem branching, erect, or spreading, 1/2-1 foot high, hairy; leaves twice or thrice pinnate, with short segments cut into linear lobes; umbels terminal of 2-3 rays, without general ...
-(128) Anthriscus. Chervil
A. sylvestris: stems hairy, erect, branched, 2-3 feet high; lower leaves on long stalks, twice pinnate, with ovate-lanceolate, pointed, deeply pinnatifid, toothed segments, upper leaves smaller, all h...
-(129) Chaerophyllum. Chervil
C. temulum: biennial; stem erect, 2-3 feet high, rough with short reflexed hairs; leaves twice pinnate or ternate, with ovate or wedge-shaped pinnatifid or toothed segments, more or less hairy; umbels...
-(131) Torilis. Hedge Parsley
T. nodosa: annual; stems procumbent or spreading, scarcely a foot long; leaves twice pinnate, with small, narrow, pointed segments; umbels forming little heads, closely sessile, opposite to the leaves...
-(132) Daucus. Carrot
D. Carota: annual or biennial; stem 1-3 feet high; leaves twice or thrice pinnate, with deeply three-lobed or pinnatifid, lanceolate or linear segments; umbels terminal, large, with numerous crowded r...
-(133) Bryonia. Bryony
B. dioica: tuberous; stems climbing to a great length by means of spirally-twisted tendrils; leaves palmately 5-7-lobed, the lobes toothed; flowers dioecious, the males broadly-campanulate pale yellow...
-(134) Lonicera. Honeysuckle
L. Periclymemim: shrub; stems scrambling over bushes and trees to a considerable height; leaves ovate or oblong, the lower ones contracted, stalked, the upper ones rounded and closely sessile, but not...
-(135) Linnaea
L. borealis: evergreen; stems creeping and trailing to the length of one foot or more; leaves opposite, small, broadly-ovate; flowering branches short, erect, with 2-3 pairs of leaves, two-flowered; f...
-(136) Sambucus. Elder
S. nigra: small tree or shrub; leaves pinnate, with 5-7 ovate, pointed, sharply-toothed segments; flowers white or cream-coloured, in broad cymes of about five main branches, many times divided; fruit...
-(137) Viburnum
V. Lantana: shrub, much branched, covered with soft, mealy down; leaves ovate, cordate at the base, with small pointed teeth, whitish and downy beneath; flowers small, white, in dense cymes, 2-3 inche...
-(138) Rubia. Madder
It. peregrina: stems straggling, dwarf, or trailing over bushes to the length of several feet, clinging by means of short recurved prickles; leaves 4-6, in a whorl, ovate-oblong or lanceolate, nearly ...
-(139) Galium
* Flowers yellow. G. cruciatum: stems prostrate or creeping, the flowering ones erect or ascending, 1/2-1 1/2 foot long, hairy; leaves in whorls of four, ovate, hairy on both sides; flowers small, ...
-(140) Sherardia. Field Madder
S. arvensis: annual; stems decumbent, branched, seldom over six inches high; leaves about six in a whorl, the lower ones obovate, the upper linear or lanceolate, acute, rough-edged; flowers small, blu...
-(141) Centranthus
C. ruber: stems stout, tufted, glabrous, somewhat glaucous, 1-2 feet high; leaves ovate-lanceolate, entire; flowers numerous, red, rarely white, in dense cymes, forming a handsome oblong, terminal pan...
-(142) Valeriana. Valerian
* Lower leaves undivided. V. dioica: stem emitting creeping runners, the flowering ones erect, 6-8 inches high; radical leaves on long stalks, ovate, entire, the stem-leaves few, mostly pinnate, with ...
-(143) Dipsacus. Teasel
D. sylvestris: biennial; stems erect, 4-5 feet high, prickly as well as the midribs, peduncles, and involucres; leaves sessile, long, lanceolate, entire or coarsely-toothed, the upper ones broadly-con...
-(144) Scabiosa. Scabious
* FloretsJive-lobed. S. Columbaria: stems 1-2 feet high, glabrous or hoary; leaves pinnate, with an ovate or oblong terminal segment, and several smaller ones, the stem-leaves few, with linear segm...
-(145) Anthemis. Chamomile
* Ray-florets without a style. A. Cotula: annual; stems erect, branching, one foot high or more, glabrous, with a disagreeable smell; leaves bipin-natifid, with narrow linear, pointed, entire or di...
-(146) Achillea
A. Ptarmica: stems erect, glabrous, 1-2 feet high, nearly simple; leaves broadly linear, regularly serrate; flower-heads few, in a loose terminal corymb; florets of the ray 10-15, short, broad, white....
-(147) Chrysanthemum
* Ray-florets white. C. Leueanthemum: stems erect, simple or slightly branched, 1-2 feet high; leaves obovate, coarsely-toothed, on long stalks, those of the stem narrow, sessile; flower-heads soli...
-(148) Matricaria. Wild Chamomile
M. Chamomilla: annual, closely resembling Anthemis Cotula; stems erect, branching; leaves bipinnatifid, with short narrow linear segments; flower-heads rather large, on terminal peduncles, the involuc...
-(149) Bidens
B. cermia: annual; stems erect, 1-2 feet high, with spreading branches; leaves sessile, lanceolate, serrated; flower-heads drooping, on terminal peduncles, the floret3 yellow, usually all tubular, but...
-(150) Eupatorium
E. cannabinum: stems erect, 3-4 feet high; leaves divided into three broadly lanceolate, coarsely-toothed lobes, slightly downy; flower-heads numerous, in compact terminal corymbs, pale reddish-purple...
-(151) Erigeron
E. acris: annual or biennial; stems erect, 1/2-1 foot high, slightly branched, rough with short hairs; leaves linear or lanceolate, entire; flower-heads rather small, forming a short loose panicle; fl...
-(152) SolidagO. Golden Rod
S. Virgaurea: stems erect, stiff, nearly simple, 1/2-2 feet high; leaves obovate, stalked, those of the stem oblong or lanceolate; flower-heads crowded in a narrow-oblong terminal panicle, with a spre...
-(153) Senecio. Groundsel
* Hay-florets small, revolute. S. sylvaticus: annual; stems 1-2 feet high, erect, branched, downy; leaves deeply pinnatifid, downy with oblong unequally-toothed segments; flower-heads numerous, in ...
-(154) Inula
I. Helenium: stems stout, erect, scarcely branched, 3-5 feet high; leaves often a foot long, oblong, narrowed into a stalk; the upper ones clasping the stem, downy beneath; flower-heads very large, th...
-(155) Pulicaria. Eleabane
P. dysenterica: stems erect, 1-2 feet high, loosely branched, downy or woolly; leaves oblong, waved, clasping the stem with rounded auricles, woolly; flower-heads pedunculate, axillary or terminal, co...
-(156) Gnaphalium
* Flower-heads dioecious. G. dioicum: flowering stems almost simple, 2-5 inches high; leaves obovate or oblong, the upper ones linear, cottony beneath; flower-heads 3-4 together, in compact, terminal ...
-(157) Filago. Cudweed
F. germanica: annual; stems erect, cottony, 6-8 inches high, simple or branched at the base, each branch terminated by a single globular cluster of flower-heads, or throwing out immediately under it 2...
-(158) Arctium. Burdock
A. Lappa: biennial; stems stout, erect, branching, 3-5 feet high; leaves heart-shaped, large, sometimes 1 1/2 feet in length, the upper ones broadly ovate, green above, white and cottony beneath; flow...
-(159) Carlina. Carline Thistle
C. vulgaris: biennial; stem erect, corymbose, 6-8 inches high; leaves oblong-lanceolate, toothed or pinnatifid, very prickly; flower-heads hemispherical, 3-4 in a small terminal corymb, the outer invo...
-(160) Carduus. Thistle. Pappus of simple hairs
C. nutans: biennial; stems erect, cottony, 2-3 feet high; leaves deeply pinnatifid, very prickly, their edges decurrent along the stem, forming narrow very prickly wings; flower-heads large and droopi...
-(161) Silybum. Milk Thistle
S. Marianus: annual or biennial; stems 2-3 feet high, slightly branched, nearly glabrous; leaves smooth, shining above and variegated by white veins, the lower ones deeply pinnatifid with broad very p...
-(162) Centaurea
* Involucral bracts not prickly. C. nigra: stems erect, hard, branched, 1-2 feet high; leaves linear-lanceolate or oblong, the upper ones entire or nearly so, the lower with a few coarse teeth; inv...
-(163) Serratula. Saw wort
S. tinctoria: stem stiff, erect, scarcely branched, 1-3 feet high; leaves pinnate, with lanceolate, pointed, finely-toothed segments, the terminal one largest; upper leaves toothed only, or with a few...
-(164) Lapsana. Nipplewort
L. communis: animal; stem 1-3 feet high, with stiff hairs at the base, branched and glabrous upwards; leaves hairy, lyrate, the terminal lobe ovate, coarsely-toothed, upper ones narrow, entire; flower...
-(165) Thrincia
T. hirta: leaves oblong or linear, coarsely-toothed, sinuate or shortly pinnatifid, hispid with forked hairs; peduncles six inches high, with a single small head of bright yellow flowers; involucres g...
-(166) Leontodon. Hawkbit
L. hispidum: leaves long, narrow, coarsely-toothed or pinnatifid; the whole plant more or less hispid with erect, stiff, short hairs; peduncles 1/2-1 foot or more long, slightly swollen at the top, wi...
-(168) Hieracium. Hawk weed
* Peduncles radical, one-flowered. H. Pilosella: leaves oblong or lanceolate, entire, tapering at the base, white beneath with short stellate down; peduncles radical, with a single head of lemon-co...
-(169) Picris
P. hieracioides: biennial; stem 1-3 feet high, covered with short, rough, minutely-hooked hairs; leaves lanceolate, the lower tapering into a stalk, the upper stem-clasping; peduncles rather long and ...
-(170) Cichorium. Chicory
C. Intybus: stems hispid, 1-3 feet high; leaves spreading on the ground, hairy, runcinately pinnatifid, with a large terminal lobe and smaller lateral ones, all pointed and coarsely-toothed, the upper...
-(171) Sonchus. Sowthistle
S. arvensis: stems 2-3 feet high; leaves long, runcinately-pinnatifid or sinuate, the lobes lanceolate or triangular, bordered by small prickly teeth, the upper ones clasping the stem with short broad...
-(172) Crepis. Hawk's-beard
C. virens: annual or biennial; stems erect or ascending, 1 -3 feet high, glabrous or nearly so; leaves linear or lanceolate, toothed or pinnatifid, with triangular or narrow, but short lobes, the uppe...
-(173) Hypochceris
H. glabra: annual; stem branched, leafless, glabrous, 3-10 inches high; leaves oblong, dentate-sinuate; flower-heads small, yellow, the florets scarcely longer than the involucres; pappus feathery, se...
-(174) Helminthia. Ox-tongue
H. echioides: annual or biennial; stem coarse, erect, 1-3 feet high, rough with short, stiff, almost prickly, often hooked hairs; leaves lanceolate, sinuate or coarsely-toothed, rough, the upper ones ...
-(175) Tragopogon. Salsify
T. pratense: stem erect, slightly branched, 1-2 feet high; radical and lower leaves linear, keeled, dilated at the base, glabrous, slightly glaucous; peduncles long, thickened at the summit, each with...
-(176) Lactuca. Lettuce
* Leaves smooth-keeled, on Jong stalks. L. muralis: annual or biennial; stems glabrous, erect, two feet high, with slender branches, forming a loose terminal panicle; leaves few, thin, rather large...
-(177) Barkhausia
B. taraxacifolia: biennial; leaves chiefly radical, runcinately pinnatifid, with a large, terminal, coarsely-toothed lobe; stems erect, 1-2 feet high, bearing a few small, narrow leaves; flower-heads ...
-(178) Lobelia
L. Dortmanna: aquatic; leaves tufted, nearly cylindrical, hollow, forming a dense green carpet at the bottom of the water; flowering-stems erect and simple, rising 6-8 inches above the surface of the ...
-(179) Jasione
J. montana: annual or biennial; stems short, decumbent or ascending, sometimes nearly erect, one foot high, with spreading branches; leaves linear or lanceolate, waved on the edges, hairy; flower-head...
-(180) Phyteuma. Rampion
P. orbiculare: stems simple, erect or slightly decumbent, 1/2-1 1/2 foot high; radical leaves ovate, cordate, on long stalks, those of the stem narrow-oblong or lanceolate, the upper ones sessile; flo...
-(181) Campanula. Bell-flower
* Calyx-tube and capsule short, broad, Capsule opening at the sides. Capsule sessile, erect. C. glomerata: stem firm, erect, a foot high or more, hairy; lower leaves stalked, the re...
-(182) Oxycoccus
O. palustris: shrub; stem creeping, wiry; leaves small, evergreen, ovate or lanceolate, the edges rolled back, glaucous beneath; flowers drooping, on long, slender peduncles; the corolla deeply divide...
-(184) Pyrola. Winter-green
P. minor: leaves stalked, broadly ovate or orbicular, entire or slightly crenated, with a minute tooth or gland in each notch; peduncle erect, 4-8 inches high, leafless; flowers drooping, white or pin...
-(185) Monotropa
M. Hypopitys: stem 6-8 inches high, bearing oblong or ovate concave scales instead of leaves; flowers few, in a short terminal raceme; the whole plant pale yellowish-brown. - Yellow Bircl's-Nest. - Fi...
-(186) Hottonia. Water Violet
H. palustris: aquatic; branches whorled, leafy, entirely submerged; leaves alternate deeply pinnatifid, with narrow-linear lobes; flower-stem erect, leafless from the centre of the whorl, rising out o...
-(187) Primula. Primrose
P. farinosa: leaves obovate-lanceolate, glabrous above, and usually covered underneath with white meal, which is also observable on the peduncles and calyx; peduncles much longer than the leaves, supp...
-(188) Lysimachia. Loosestrife
* Stems erect. L. vulgaris: stem branched, 2-3 feet high, downy; leaves rather large, broadly lanceolate or ovate, in whorls of 3-4; flowers in short, compound racemes or panicles, in the upper axi...
-(189) Anagallis. Pimpernel
A. arvensis: annual; stems procumbent, 1/2-1 foot long; leaves opposite, broadly ovate, sessile, entire, dotted beneath, flowers bright red, occasionally pink, or white. - Shepherd's Weather-glass. - ...
-(190) Samolus. Brookweed
S. Valerandi: root-leaves glabrous, obovate, spreading; flowering stems 1/4-1 foot high, slightly branched, bearing a few oblong leaves, and loose racemes of small white flowers. - Maritime marshes, c...
-(191) Statice
S. Limonium: radical leaves obovate or oblong, entire, glabrous, narrowed into a long stalk; flower- stem erect, leafless, 1/2-1 foot or more high, repeatedly forked, so as to form a broad corymbose p...
-(192) Armeria. Thrift
A. vulgaris: tufted; leaves numerous, radical, all narrow-linear, entire; stems simple and leafless, 3-6 inches high, bearing a globular head of pink flowers, the petal-like border of the calyx crowne...
-(193) Plantago. Plantain
* Leaves strongly ribbed longitudinally. P. major: leaves broadly ovate, with about seven prominent ribs converging at the base into the longish footstalk; spike long, slender, tapering, formed of ...
-(194) Littorella. Shoreweed
L. lacustris: leaves tufted, narrow-linear, entire; flowers small, monoecious, the males singly or two together, on short peduncles, the females sessile among the leaves. - Margins of lakes and pools....
-(195) Pingnicula. Butterwort
P. vulgaris: leases spreading, ovate or oblong, somewhat succulent, covered with crystalline points which give them a wet, clammy appearance; flower-stalks 3-5 inches high, bearing one handsome, bluis...
-(196) Utricularia. Bladderwort
U. vulgaris: aquatic; root-like, floating branches, 1/2-1 foot long or more; leaves numerous, capillary, much divided, more or less interspersed with little green vesicles; flower-stems 6-8 inches hig...
-(197) Ilex. Holly
I. Aquifolium: shrub or small tree, much branched, evergreen; leaves shortly stalked, ovate, shining, entire, waved, bordered with strong prickly teeth; flowers white, in dense clusters in the axils o...
-(198) Fraxinus. Ash
F. excelsior: tree; leaves opposite, deciduous, pinnate, with 4-8 pairs of ovate-lanceolate toothed leaflets; flowers (before the leaves) like clusters of stamens issuing from buds of the last year's ...
-(199) Ligustrum. Privet
L. vulgare: shrub; leaves nearly evergreen, lanceolate or oblong, entire; flowers white, in short compact panicles at the ends of the branches; berries black, globular. - Hedges and thickets. Fl. June...
-(200) Convolvulus. Bindweed
C. arvensis: stems twining or prostrate, about two feet long; leaves stalked, ovate-sagittate, with pointed basal lobes; peduncles axillary, usually two-flowered, the corolla delicate pink, or nearly ...
-(201) Calystegia. Bindweed
C. sepium: stems twining, climbing to the length of many feet over hedges and bushes; leaves ovate-triangular, pointed, with broad, angular basal lobes; peduncles axillary, bearing a single large pure...
-(202) Cuscuta. Dodder
* Corolla tube with inconspicuous appressed scales. C. europsea: annual leafless parasite; plant pale greenish-yellow, sometimes reddish; flowers in sessile, globular clusters; the corolla tube at ...
-(203) Polemonium
P. coeruleum: root leaves pinnate, forming dense tufts, and made up of 11-21 lanceolate, entire leaflets; stems erect, 1 1/2-2 feet high, bearing a few small pinnate leaves; flowers in a showy termina...
-(204) Erythrsea. Centaury
E. Centaurium: annual; stems erect, from 2-12 inches high, branched in the upper part; leaves broadly ovate, forming a spreading radical tuft, the upper ones in distant pairs, ovate-oblong or narrow-l...
-(205) Gentiana. Gentian
G. Amarella: annual; stems erect, much-branched, 1/4-1 foot high, often with a purplish tinge; leaves ovate or lanceolate; flowers numerous, crowded, or sometimes forming a loose, oblong, leafy panicl...
-(206) Chlora
C. perfoliata: annual; stems erect, stiff, 1/2-2 feet high, pale glaucous green; leaves in a spreading tuft, elliptic-oblong, those of the stem in distant pairs, perfoliate; flowers bright yellow, in ...
-(207) Villarsia
V. nymphseoides: aquatic; stems creeping and rooting at the base, branching and ascending to the surface of the water, bearing a single leaf at each upper branch, and a terminal floating tuft of leave...
-(208) Datura. Thorn-apple
D. Stramonium: annual; stems coarse, glabrous, 1-2 feet high, with spreading, forked branches; leaves large, ovate, with irregular angular teeth; flowers solitary, on short peduncles, in the forks or ...
-(209) Hyoscyamus. Henbane
H. niger: annual or biennial, hairy, viscid, with a nauseous smell: annual plants erect, about one foot high, the leaves sessile, the upper ones clasping the stem, ovate, irregularly pinnatifid: bienn...
-(210) Solanum
S. Dulcamara: stem shrubby at the base, with straggling branches; leaves stalked, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, broadly cordate at the base, entire, or sometimes with an additional smaller segment on one...
-(211) Atropa. Deadly Nightshade
A. Belladonna: stems stout, erect, branching, glabrous or slightly downy, three feet high; leaves stalked, large, ovate, entire, with a smaller one usually proceeding from the same point; flowers soli...
-(212) Echium. Viper's Bugloss
E. vulgare: biennial; stems erect, 1-2 feet high, with stiff, almost prickly hairs; leaves lanceolate, stalked, those of the stem linear-lanceolate; flowers showy, reddish purple, turning to bright bl...
-(213) Lithospermum. Gromwell
* Nuts wrinkled. L. arvense: annual; stems erect, branched, about a foot high, hoary with appressed hairs; leaves narrow-lanceolate or nearly linear; flowers small, white, sessile, in leafy terminal c...
-(214) Borago. Borage
B. officinalis: annual; stem erect, with spreading branches, 1-2 feet high; leaves obovate or oblong, narrowed at the base into long stalks, the upper more shortly stalked, narrower; flowers on long p...
-(215) Lycopsis. Bugloss
L. arvensis: annual; stems procumbent at the base, branched, 1-2 feet long, covered with stiff hairs; leaves lanceolate or oblong-linear, waved, often toothed, the upper ones sessile or stem-clasping...
-(216) Anchusa. Alkanet
A. sempervirens: stems straggling, coarsely hairy; leaves broadly ovate; flowers in short, one-sided spikes, leafy at the base, and placed in the axils of the stem-leaves; corolla rich blue. - Waste p...
-(217) Myosotis, Scorpion-grass
* Hairs of the calyx oppressed. M. palustris: stems weak, ascending, 1/2-1 1/2 foot high, nearly glabrous; leaves oblong bluntish, nearly glabrous; flowers bright clear blue, with a yellow eye, rat...
-(218) Cynoglossum. Hound's tongue
C. officinale: biennial; stem stout, erect, branched, about two feet high, with rough hairs; leaves lanceolate, or the lowest ones oblong, the uppermost sessile and clasping the stem, all hoary with d...
-(219) Salvia. Sage
S. pratensis: leaves ovate, heart-shaped or oblong, coarsely toothed, wrinkled; stem 1-1 1/2 feet high, downy, with a few narrow leaves near its base; flowers in a long, handsome, terminal, almost sim...
-(220) Lycopus. Gipsywort
L. europseus: stems erect, branching, slightly hairy, two feet high; leaves ovate-oblong, deeply toothed or pinnatifid; flowers small, numerous, in dense axillary whorls or clusters, whitish with purp...
-(221) Nepeta. Catmint
N. Cataria: stems erect, branching, 2-2 1/2 feet high, hoary with minute down; leaves ovate-cordate, coarsely toothed; flowers rather small, pale blue or nearly white, crowded in compact cymes, formin...
-(222) Mentha. Mint
* Calyx-throat naked. Flowers in spiked ichorls or terminal heads. M. sylvestris: stems 1-2 feet high, erect, slightly branched, and, as well as the whole plant, hoary with short down; l...
-(223) Origanum. Marjoram
O. vulgare: stems erect, 1-2 feet high, hairy; leaves stalked, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, slightly toothed; flowers purplish, rarely white, in globular compact heads, forming a terminal trichotomous p...
-(224) Thymus. Thyme
T. Serpyllum: stems procumbent, slender, much branched, perennial, scarcely woody at the base, forming low dense tufts, almost covered with the purple flowers; leaves very small, ovate or oblong, frin...
-(225) Marrubium. Horehound
M. vulgare: stem 1 1/2 foot high, with spreading branches, thickly covered with white cottony wool; leaves stalked, orbicular, soft, much wrinkled; flowers in dense whorls or clusters in the axils of ...
-(226) Galeopsis. Hemp-nettle
* Calyx-teeth not longer than the tube. G. Ladanum: annual; stems 6-8 inches high, with spreading, almost decumbent branches, covered with short soft down, not swollen under the nodes; leaves narro...
-(227) Stachys. Woundwort
* Stems erect. S. Betonica: stems 1-2 feet high, downy or hairy; leaves mostly radical, oblong, cordate at the base, coarsely crenate, the upper ones few, distant, sessile; flowers purple, in dense...
-(228) Leonurus. Motherwort
L. Cardiaca: stems stiff, hairy or downy, 2-4 feet high; leaves stalked, broad, palmately cut into 5-7 coarsely toothed lobes, the floral leaves narrow, 3-lobed or entire; flowers in long interrupted,...
-(229) Ballota. Black Horehound
B. nigra: stems erect, hairy, branching, 2-3 feet high, with a strong, disagreeable smell; leaves stalked, ovate or cordate, coarsely toothed; flowers in dense axillary clusters, often slightly stalke...
-(230) Scutellaria. Skullcap
S. galericulata: stems slightly branched, ascending, 1/2-1 foot high; leaves ovate-lanceolate, slightly toothed; flowers nearly sessile, opposite, in axillary pairs along the greater part of the stem,...
-(231) Prunella. Self-heal
P. vulgaris: stem procumbent, rooting at the base, with ascending flowering branches, 1/4-1 foot high; leaves stalked. Ovate, nearly entire; flowers in dense spikes, violet-purple, the upper lip be...
-(232) Calanrintha. Calamint
* Calyx-tube gibbous at the base beneath. C. Acinos: annual; stems branched, 6-8 inches high, slightly downy; leaves small, narrow-ovate, slightly toothed; flowers pale purple or white, in axillary...
-(233) Teucrium. Germander
T. Scorodonia: stems erect, hairy, 1 foot high, slightly branched, almost woody at the base; leaves ovate or lanceolate, coarsely toothed, wrinkled, downy; flowers of a pale yellow, in pairs, forming ...
-(234) Verbena. Vervain
V. officinalis: stem nearly glabrous, erect, 1-2 feet high, with long, spreading, wiry branches; leaves obovate or oblong, stalked, coarsely toothed or cut, the upper ones few, lanceolate; flowers ver...
-(235) Veronica. Speedwell
* Flowers in terminal racemes. V. spicata: stems ascending or erect, 1/2-1 foot high, usually simple; leaves oblong or the lower ones ovate, downy, slightly crenate; flowers clear blue, in dense te...
-(230) Verbascum. Mullein
V. Thapsus: biennial; stem stout, erect, simple or branched, 2-4 feet high, clothed with soft woolly hairs; leaves oblong, pointed, narrowed at the base into two wings running down the stem, the lower...
-(237) Sibthorpia
S. europsea: stems very slender, creeping, rooting at the nodes; leaves small, stalked, orbicular, deeply cordate at the base, crenate, hairy; flowers minute, axillary, the corolla with the two upper ...
-(238) Linaria. Toad-flax
* Stems erect. L. vulgaris: stems 1-3 feet high, glaucous green; leaves crowded, linear or narrow-lanceolate; flowers large, yellow, forming a short handsome terminal raceme; spur of the corolla lo...
-(239) Antirrhinum. Snapdragon
A. majus: stems branched, erect, 1-2 feet high, glabrous; leaves narrow-lanceolate or linear, entire; flowers large, purplish-red, the corolla above an inch long. - Rocks, old walls, and stony places....
-(240) Scrophularia. Figwort
S. nodosa: stems erect, 2-3 feet high, glabrous, sharply quadrangular, the short stock emitting a number of green knots or tubers; leaves broadly ovate or heart-shaped, acute serrated; panicle loosely...
-(241) Digitalis. Foxglove
D. purpurea: biennial; leaves long-stalked, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, coarsely veined, downy; flowering stems 2-4 feet high, terminating in a long stately raceme of purple flowers, the corolla 1 1/2 ...
-(242) Pedicularis. Lousewort
P. palustris: annual; stems glabrous, erect, or in dry situations decumbent at the base, much branched, one foot, or in water two feet high; leaves pinnate, with short ovate deeply cut segments, the f...
-(243) Bartsia
B. Odontites: annual; stems erect, branching, a foot high, downy; leaves lanceolate, toothed; flowers purplish-red, in numerous one-sided spikes, the upper lip of the corolla longer than the lower one...
-(244) Euphrasia. Eyebright
E. officinalis: annual; stem 2-8 inches high, usually much branched, glabrous or slightly downy; leaves small, sessile, opposite, ovate, deeply toothed, the teeth of the upper ones finely pointed; flo...
-(245) Rhinanthus. Rattle
It. Crista-galli: annual; stems erect, glabrous or slightly hairy, 1/2-1 foot high, simple or slightly branched; leaves opposite, lanceolate, and coarsely-toothed, the floral ones broader, shorter, an...
-(246) Melampyrum. Cow-wheat
M. pratense: stem erect or ascending, glabrous or nearly so, 1/2-1 foot high, with very spreading, opposite branches; leaves lanceolate, the floral ones distant from each other, short, and often tooth...
-(247) Orobanche. Broomrape
O. major: plant at first pale-yellow, soon becoming a dingy purplish-brown; stem simple, stout, erect, 1-2 feet high, with lanceolate scales; flowers closely sessile, forming a dense spike half the le...
-(248) Salicornia. Glasswort
S. herbacea: annual; stems erect, glabrous, succulent, jointed, leafless, six inches high, with few erect branches, or when luxuriant branching from every joint: often procumbent and rooting, extendin...
-(249) Suaeda
S. maritima: annual or biennial; stems erect or procumbent, much branched, seldom a foot high; leaves acute, semi-cylindrical, succulent; flowers small, green, sessile, solitary, or 2-3 together in th...
-(250) Salsola. Saltwort
S. Kali: annual; stems procumbent, glabrous, much branched, 1/2-1 foot long; leaves awl-shaped, ending in a stout prickle, the uppermost nearly triangular; flowers sessile in the upper axils, the inco...
-(251) Beta. Beet
B. maritima: stems erect or spreading, branched, two feet high; leaves broad, triangular-ovate, thick, green, the upper ones small, narrow; flowers green, single or clustered, in long, loose, terminal...
-(252) Chenopodium. Goose foot
* Perianth covering the seed-like fruit. Leaves undivided. C. Vulvaria: annual; stems procumbent, branched; leaves small, ovate, entire, covered with granular mealiness, and remarkable for ...
-(253) Atriplex. Orache
A. patula: annual; stems erect or prostrate, more or less mealy-white; leaves stalked, usually hastate, sometimes opposite, the upper ones narrow, entire; flowers clustered in slender spikes, forming ...
-(254) Ceratophyllum. Hornwort
C. demersum: aquatic; stems floating, submersed; leaves whorled, twice or thrice forked, with subulate segments, usually slightly-toothed on the edge; flowers small, sessile, axillary, without any rea...
-(255) Callitriche. Water Starwort
C. aquatica: aquatic; stems slender, glabrous, floating in water, or creeping and rooting in wet mud; leaves obovate or oblong, or the lower submerged ones narrow-linear, and obtuse or notched at the ...
-(256) Urtica. Nettle
U. urens: annual, with stiff, stinging hairs; stems erect, branching, 1/2-1 foot high, glabrous; leaves ovate, deeply toothed; flowers in small, loose, almost sessile, axillary clusters. - Cultivated ...
-(257) Parietaria. Pellitory
P. officinalis: stems branching, diffuse or procumbent, 1/2-1 foot long, downy with short soft hairs; leaves stalked, ovate or oblong, entire; flowers in sessile clusters. - Old walls, and waste, ston...
-(258) Humulus. Hop
H. Lupulus: stems twining to a considerable height over bushes and small trees; leaves opposite, stalked, broadly heart-shaped, deeply 3-5-lobed, sharply-toothed, rough but not stinging; flowers dioec...
-(259) Rumex. Dock
* Leaves never hastate at the base, sometimes obtusely auricled. Inner perianth-segments entire. Segments cordate-ovate. It. crispus: stem 2-3 feet high, with few branches; leaves l...
-(260) Oxyria
O. reniformis: leaves glabrous, cordate-orbicular or kidney-shaped, acid; stem slender and almost leafless, 6-10 inches high, terminating in a simple or slightly-branched raceme; flowers small. - High...
-(261) Polygonum
* Stems prostrate wiry branched, or simple and floating. P. aviculare: annual; stems often 1-2 feet long; stipules white, scarious, becoming ragged at the edges; leaves small, narrow-oblong; flower...
-(262) Thesium
T. linophyllum: stems glabrous, procumbent or ascending, 6-8 inches long; leaves linear-lanceolate; flowers small, in a terminal, leafy raceme, greenish-white. - Chalky pastures, parasitical. Fl. June...
-(263) Euphorbia. Spurge
* Glands of the involucre rounded on the outer edge. E. Helioscopia: annual; stems erect, 1/2-1 foot high, simple, or with a few branches ascending from the base; stem-leaves obovate or broadly obl...
-(264) Mercurialis. Mercury
M. annua: annual; stems erect, glabrous, 1/2-1 foot high, with opposite branches; leaves ovate or oblong, coarsely-toothed, of a thin texture; male flowers clustered along slender peduncles nearly as ...
-(265) Aristolochia. Birthwort
A. Clematitis: stems erect, simple, 1 1/2 foot high, smooth; leaves broadly cordate; flowers axillary, clustered, yellow, the tube slender with an oblique mouth. - Stony, rubbishy places, naturalized....
-(266) Paris. Herb Paris
P. quadrifolia: stems 3/4-1 foot high, with a whorl of four broadly-ovate or obovate leaves at top; perianth yellowish-green, stalked, the four outer segments narrow-lanceolate, the four inner ones li...
-(267) Tamus. Black Bryony
T. communis: stems slender, smooth, twining to a considerable length over hedges and bushes; leaves shining, heart-shaped, with a tapering point; flowers small, yellowish-green, the males in slender o...
-(268) Acorus. Sweet Flag
A. Calamus: aquatic, leaves highly aromatic, linear, erect, 2-3 feet long; flowering-stem simple, erect, the long linear leaf-like spathe forming a flattened continuation; spike sessile, appearing lat...
-(269) Typha. Bull-rush
T. latifolia: aquatic; stems erect, reed-like, 3-6 feet high; leaves long, erect, linear, sheathing at the base, flat above; flowers in a dense continuous spike, often more than a foot long, the upper...
-(270) Sparganium. Bur-reed
S. ramosum: aquatic; leaves long, linear, sheathing at the base; stems erect, two feet high or more, with a few branches at the summit, each bearing several smaller male heads, and below them a few la...
-(271) Lemna. Duckweed
L. trisulca: aquatic; fronds floating, thin, oblong, minutely-toothed at the top, and ending in a little stalk at the base, with young ones growing at right angles from opposite sides, each with a sin...
-(272) Potamogeton. Pond weed
* Upper leaves floating on the surface of the water. P. natans: aquatic; leaves opaque, ovate or oblong, usually rounded, sometimes cordate or tapering at the base, marked by several longitudinal n...
-(273) Zannichellia. Horned Pondweed
Z. palustris: aquatic; stems slender, branched, floating; leaves finely linear, mostly opposite, with a small, sheathing, membranous stipule; flowers axillary, sessile or nearly so. - Ponds or lagoons...
-(274) Stratiotes. Water Soldier
S. aloides: aquatic; leaves tufted at the bottom of the water, sessile, long, narrow, succulent, bordered by small pointed teeth; flower-bracts with delicate dioecious peduncles, bearing a spathe of t...
-(275) Hydrocharis. Frogbit
H. Morsus-ranae: aquatic; stems floating, runner-like, with tufts of thick, entire, stalked, orbicular-cordate leaves; flowers dioecious: the males on short peduncles, bearing 2-3 flowers on long pedi...
-(276) Anacharis
A. Alsinastrum: aquatic, dark-green, much-branched, entirely floating under water; leaves numerous, opposite or in whorls of 3-4, sessile, linear-oblong, transparent; female flowers, the only ones kno...
-(277) Iris. Flag
I. Pseudacorus: aquatic; stem two feet high; leaves sword-shaped, the lower ones longer, stiff and erect, glaucous-green; flowers 2-3, large, erect, bright yellow, the outer perianth-segments spreadin...
-(278) Gladiolus. Corn flag
G. communis: stem 1 1/2-2 feet high; leaves linear-lanceolate; flowers red, all turned to one side, sessile, the perianth about 1 1/2 inches long, the expanded part of the segments oblong-lanceolate, ...
-(279) Listera. Twayblade
L. ovata: stem 1 - 1 1/2 foot high; leaves two, broadly ovate; flowers small, green, in long slender racemes; lip with two linear parallel lobes. - Moist pastures and woods. Fl. June. L. cordata: s...
-(281) Cephalanthera
C. grandiflora: stem 1-1 1/2 foot high; leaves prominently veined, broadly ovate, the upper ones broadly lanceolate; flowers large, yellowish white, in a loose leafy spike, the bracts all longer than ...
-(282) Orchis
* Spur conical, nearly as long as the ovary. O. latifolia: tubers palmate; stems one foot high; leaves large, oblong, blunt, not always spotted; flowers purplish-rose, dotted and marked with purple...
-(283) Gymnadenia
G. conopsea: tubers palmate; stem 1-2 feet high; leaves linear or narrow-lanceolate; spike oblong or cylindrical; flowers light rosy-purple, small, sweet-scented, with a long slender spur. - Heaths an...
-(284) Habenaria
H. bifolia: stem 1-1 1/2 foot high; leaves two, rather large, broadly ovate or oblong; flowers pure white or with a slight greenish tinge, large and sweet-scented, in a loose spike, 3-8 inches long; l...
-(285) Aceras
A. anthropophora: stem 8-9 inches high; leaves ovate, oblong, or nearly lanceolate; spike slender, 2-4 iuches long, the flowers small, dull yellowish-green, the lip narrow-linear, twice as long as the...
-(286) Asparagus
A. officinalis: stems erect, much-branched, 1-2 feet high, elegantly feathered by the numerous clusters of fine subulate leaves; flowers small, greenish-white, hanging, 2-3 together in the, axils of t...
-(287) Simethis
S. bicolor: leaves radical, long, linear, grass-like; stem leafless, one foot high, with a loose terminal panicle of erect flowers; perianth spreading, of six oblong segments, white, purplish on the o...
-(288) Narthecium. Bog Asphodel
N. ossifragum: stem stiff, erect, 1/2-1 foot high; leaves linear, vertically flattened, sheathing at their base in two opposite ranks; flowers bright yellow, in a stiff terminal raceme. - Bogs and wet...
-(289) Tofieldia. Scottish Asphodel
T. palustris: leaves small, sword-shaped; flower-stem 6-8 inches high, terminated by a globular or ovoid spike of small yellowish-white flowers. - Mountain bogs. Fl. July. ...
-(290) Allium. Garlic
* Stems leafy. A. oleraceum: stems 1-2 feet high; leaves narrow-linear, nearly flat, rather thick, their sheathing bases covering the stem a considerable way up; spathe-valves with long, linear poi...
-(291) Butomus. Flowering Rush
B. umbellatus: aquatic; leaves long, erect, triangular; flower-stem leafless, 2-4 feet high, rush-like, bearing a large umbel of showy, rose-coloured flowers, the perianth an inch across, of six ovate...
-(292) Alisma. Water Plantain
A. Plantago: leaves radical, ovate or lanceolate; flower-stem 1-3 feet high, with whorled unequal branches, forming a loose pyramidal panicle; flowers rather small, very pale rose-colour, on long whor...
-(293) Actinocarpus. Star-fruit
A. Damasonium: aquatic, annual; leaves glabrous, radical, long-stalked, ovate or oblong; flower-stems erect, 3-9 inches high, bearing a terminal umbel and a few whorls of flowers lower down, the inner...
-(294) Sagittaria. Arrowhead
S. sagittifolia: leaves radical, on long stalks, the blade long, sagittate; flower-stem leafless, erect, longer than the leaves, bearing several distant whorls of rather large white flowers. - Ditches...
-(295) Triglochin. Arrow-grass
T. palustre: leaves slender, rather succulent, dilated and sheathing at the base; flower-stems 1/2-1 foot high, bearing a slender spike of very small, yellowish-green flowers; ripe fruit linear. - Wet...
-(296) Juncus. Rush
* Leaves none; barren and fertile stems subulate, with sheathing scales at the bane. Panicle lateral. J. communis: stems leafless, densely tufted, cylindrical, 2-4 feet high, erect but s...
-(297) Luzula. Wood-rush
L. sylvatica: stems 1 1/2-2 feet or more; leaves linear-lanceolate, hairy; flowers in large, loose, compound panicles, the perianth-segments broad, bristle-pointed, equalling the capsule. - Woods. Pl ...
-(298) Carex. Sedge
* SpiJcelets several, the terminal one composed of male and female flowers intermixed. C. arenaria: creeping; stems 1-1 1/2 foot high, leafy at the base; spikelets large, ovoid, simple, sessile, cr...
-(299) Schoenus. Bog-rush
S. nigricans: stems stiff, rush-like, about a foot high; leaves short, stiff, almost radical; spikelets several, dark, shining brown, almost black, closely sessile, in compact terminal heads, with an ...
-(300) Blysmus
B. compressus: stems 6-8 inches high; leaves flat, keeled; spike terminal, about an inch long, consisting of 10-12 oblong 6-8 flowered spikelets, closely sessile on opposite sides of the axis, the bro...
-(301) Eleocharis
E. acicularis: plant small, slender, tufted, the fine subulate stems scarcely two inches high, with short sheaths at their base, most of them bearing a single terminal oblong spikelet, of a dark brown...
-(302) Scirpus. Club-rush. Hypogynous bristles none
S. fluitans: aquatic; stems long, slender, branching, either floating in water, or forming soft densely matted masses on its margin; leaves linear-subulate; spikelets solitary, terminal, oblong, green...
-(303) Eriophorum. Cotton-sedge
E. vaginatum: stems tufted, one foot high or more, with one or two linear, almost subulate leaves; upper sheaths inflated, without any or only a very short blade; spikelet solitary, terminal, ovoid, d...
-(304) Rhynchospora. Beak-sedge
R. alba: stems 6-9 inches high, slender, forming dense tufts; leaves chiefly radical, short, subulate, the floral ones scarcely exceeding the flowers; spikelets nearly white, in a small, loose termina...
-(305) Milium. Millet-grass
M. efiusum: stem tall, slender, 4 - 5 feet high; leaves short, flat; panicle long, loose, slender, spreading. - Moist woods. Fl. June, July. ...
-(306) Digraphis
D. arundinacea: stems reed-like, 2-3 feet high; leaves rather broad, long; panicle upright, with short spreading branches; spikelets numerous. - River-banks and marshes. Fl. July. The Ribbon-grass of ...
-(307) Phleum. Cat's tail-grass
P. pratense: stem 1-3 feet high; leaves rough on the edges; spike or spike-like panicle cylindrical, very compact, 1 - 4 inches long; outer glumes truncate at top, with broad scarious edges. - Timothy...
-(309) Lagnrus. Hare's-tail-grass
L. ovatus: annual; stems erect, 1/4-1 foot high; leaves hoary with soft down, their sheaths rather swollen; spikelets 1-flowered, crowded in an ovoid or oblong, softly hairy head, 1/2-1 inch long. - M...
-(310) Polypogon. Beard-grass
P. monspeliensis: annual; stems procumbent at the base, rarely erect, 1-1 1/2 feet high; leaves flat, rather flaccid; panicle contracted into a slightly branched spike, 2-3 inches long, yellowish shin...
-(311) Agrostis. Bent-grass
A. alba: stem procumbent at the base, 1-2 feet high; leaves flat; panicle slender, spreading when in flower, contracted after flowering; outer pales thin, awnless or rarely with a minute awn from its ...
-(312) Apera. Wind-grass
A. Spica-venti: annual; steins 1-2 feet high, slender, elegant; leaves narrow; panicle long, spreading, with slender, hair-like branches, and little shining spikelets, the outer pales with a hair-like...
-(313) Ammophila. Sea-reed, or Marram
A. arenaria: stems stiff, erect, 2-3 feet high; leaves narrow, erect, glaucous, rolled inwards on their edges; panicle contracted into a close, narrow-cylindrical, tapering spike, 5-6 inches long. - M...
-(314) Calamagrostis. Small-reed
C. Epigeios: stems 3-4 feet high, erect, firm; leaves long, narrow, somewhat glaucous; panicle branched, not spreading, from a few inches to near a foot long, often purplish; outer glumes very narrow-...
-(315) Aira. Hair-grass
A. csespitosa: stems 2-4 feet high; leaves stiff, flat, rough above, forming dense tufts; panicle 1/2-1 foot long, very elegant, with spreading, slender, almost capillary branches, the spikelets silve...
-(316) Avena. Oat
A. fatua: annual; stems erect, glabrous, 2-3 feet high; panicle loose, of large spikelets, hanging fiom filiform pedicels of unequal length, arranged in alternate bunches along the main axis; awn twic...
-(317) Trisetum
T. flavescens: stems erect, 1-2 feet high; panicle oblong, 3-5 inches long, with slender, somewhat spreading branches, the spikelets erect, shining, often yellowish; awn twisted, but short, very fine ...
-(318) Arrhenathernm. False Oat, oR Oat-grass
A. avenaceum: stems erect, 2-3 feet high; leaves few, flaccid; panicle narrow, loose, 6-8 inches long, spreading only whilst in flower; outer pales with a fine bent awn on the middle of the back about...
-(319) Holcus. Soft-grass
H. lanatus: roots fibrous; stems 1-2 feet high, clothed, like the leaves, with short down; panicle 2-3 inches long, whitish, or sometimes reddish; outer glumes obtuse, concealing the awn of the pales....
-(320) Spartina
S. stricta: steins stiff, erect, 1-2 feet high; leaves short, erect, flat, excepting at the top, the edges always rolled inwards when dry; panicle 3-4 inches long, consisting of 2-4 erect, spike-like ...
-(321) Lepturus
L. incurvatus: annual; stems decumbent, branched at the base, the flowering-stems curved upwards or erect, 3-9 inches high; leaves short, fine, the uppermost close under the flowers; spike 2-4 inches ...
-(322) Nardus. Mat-grass
N. strieta: stems densely tufted, erect, wiry, 1/2-1 foot high; leaves fine, stiff, bristle-like; spike erect, slender, simple, onesided, often assuming a purplish hue - Moors, heaths, and hilly pastu...
-(323) Elymus. Lyme-grass
E. arenarius: stems 2-4 feet high; leaves stiff, glaucous, rolled inwards on the edges, ending in a hard point; spike close, 3-4 inches to 8-9 inches long, the spikelets in rather distant pairs; glume...
-(324) Hordeum. Barley
H. pratense: stems erect or decumbent, two feet high; leaves glabrous and rather narrow; spike 1 1/2-2 inches long, close, cylindrical; flowers of the central spikelet only perfect, the outer glumes o...
-(325) Triticum. Wheat-grass
T. repens: stems stiff, ascending or erect, 1-3 feet high, sometimes glaucous; spikelets placed on alternate sides of a spike, 2-6 inches long; glumes 5-7 ribbed, acute, or terminating in an awn. - Co...
-(327) Brachy podium. False Brome-grass
B. sylvaticum: stems rather slender, erect, 2-3 feet high; leaves flat, rather long; spike simple, drooping; spikelets usually 6-7, each an inch or more in length, nearly cylindrical, becoming flatten...
-(328) Bromus. Brome-grass
* Outer pales narrow-lanceolate. B. erectus: stems erect, two feet high; leaves narrow; panicle 3-5 inches long, compact, the brandies erect; spikelets not numerous; awn straight, scarcely half as ...
-(329) Festuca
* Awns none, or very short. F. ovina: stems densely tufted, 1/2-1 1/2 foot high; leaves very narrow, almost cylindrical; panicle rather compact, 1 1/2-4 inches long; glumes narrow, glabrous, or dow...
-(330) Dactylis. Cock's-foot-grass
D. glomerata: stems coarse, 1-2 feet high; leaves flaccid, rough on the edges; clusters of spikelets dense and ovoid, collected into a close spike of about an inch, or in a broken spike of several inc...
-(331) Cynosurus. Dog's-tail-grass
C. cristatus: stems slender, wiry, erect, 1-2 feet high; leaves short, narrow; flowering spike semicylindrical, oblong or nearly linear, 1-3 inches long, the clusters regular, all turned to one side. ...
-(332) Briza. Quake-grass
B. media: stems erect, rather stiff, 1-1 1/2 foot high; leaves flat, narrow, few; panicle 2-4 inches long, loose, spreading, the spikelets hanging from the long, slender branches, at firs': orbicular,...
-(333) Poa. Meadow-grass
* Pales rounded on the back. P. maritima: stems decumbent or erect, a foot high; leaves short, narrow, usually convolute; panicle erect, rather stiff, 3-4 inches long, the branches erect, or the lo...
-(334) Glyceria
G. aquatica: aquatic; stems stout, reed-like, 4-6 feet high; leaves flat, very rough on the edges; panicle much branched, spreading, nearly a foot long, the spikelets numerous. - Wet ditches and shall...
-(335) Catabrosa. Water Hair-grass
C. aquatica: aquatic; stems glabrous, procumbent, creeping at the base or floating, often 2-3 feet long; flowering branches erect; leaves short, flat, flaccid; panicle 4-6 inches long, with unequal, s...
-(336) Melica. Melic-grass
M. uniflora: stems 1-2 feet high, slender, elegant; leaves long and narrow; panicle reduced to an almost simple raceme with 3-4 spikelets, or having a few long, slender distant branches, each bearing ...
-(337) Arundo. Reed
A. Phragmites: aquatic; stems stout, 5-6 feet high or more, leafy all the way up; leaves broad; panicle from a few inches to a foot long, with numerous branches, more or less drooping, purplish-brown,...
-Autumn Flowers And Fruits
It was an eve of Autumn's holiest mood. The corn-fields, bathed in Cynthia's silver light, Stood ready for the reaper's gathering hand; And all the winds slept soundly. Nature seemed In silent contem...
-Autumn Flowers And Fruits. Continued
The Dcvil's-bit,* an example of the Dipsacaceous family, belongs to the same series of epigynous Monopetals as the family of Composites. It is found abundantly in meadows and pastures, and in heathy p...
-Summary Of Autumn Flowers
I. - Groups And Orders Exogenous Plants or Dicotyledons. Leaves with netted veins. Flowers usually quinary - the parts in fives, or quaternary - the parts in fours. Embryos with two (rarely more...
-Summary Of Autumn Flowers. Part 2
II.-Genera Or Families 1. Ranunculaceous Plants. Ranunculaceae (1) Banunculus - calyx of five, rarely three, sepals; petals five, the nectariferous pore naked, or covered by a scale; carpels col...
-Summary Of Autumn Flowers. Part 3
11. Umbelliferous Plants. Umbelliferae * Albumen solid. Fruit ovate or elliptical, rounded or slightly compressed dorsally. Vittae single between the ribs. (18) Foeniculum ...
-Summary Of Autumn Flowers. Part 4
15. Ericaceous Plants. Ericaceae (39) Arbutus - calyx five-parted; corolla globose or ovate-campanulate, with a small contracted border; stamens ten, with flattened filaments; anthers furnished wit...
-(1) Ranunculus. Crowfoot
* Leaves smooth. R. sceleratus: annual; stems 1-2 feet high; lower leaves broad, stalked, tripartite, the segments blunt crenate, upper leaves trifid, inciso-dentate; flowers very small, pale yello...
-(2) Fumaria. Fumitory
F.officinalis: annual; stem much-branched; leaves much cut; flowers rose-coloured, sepals ovate-lanceolate, acute, toothed, narrower and two-thirds shorter than the corolla; fruit globose, truncate, s...
-(3) Diplotaxis
D.tenuifolia: stem 1-1 1/2 foot high, shrubby below, branched, glabrous, leafy; leaves glaucous, linear-lanceolate, very acute, sinuate-dentate or pinnatifid, the segments linear, remotely dentate; fl...
-(4) Senebiera
S. didyma: annual; stem spreading, prostrate, a foot or more in length; leaves pinnatifid; flowers small, white, in long, lax, slender clusters; pouch notched, of two wrinkled lobes; style extremely s...
-(6) Saponaria. Soapwort
S. officinalis: stem 1-2 feet high, stout, erect, leafy; leaves elliptic-lanceolate, ribbed; flowers fasciculate, corymbose, flesh-coloured or pale pink, large and handsome, the petals retuse, crowned...
-(7) Geranium. Crane's-bill
G. Robertianum: annual or biennial; stems 1/2-1 foot high, bright red; leaves ternate, the segments divided; flowers small, reddish-purple, with hairy sepals. - Hedge-banks. Fl. June to October. ...
-(8) Erodium
E. cicutarium: annual; stem hairy, tufted; leaves pinnate, the leaflets deeply pinnatifid; flowers small, purple or pinkish, in an umbel. - Waste places. Fl. June to September. ...
-(9) Hypericum
* Stamens in five bundles. H. Androssemum: stem two feet high, shrubby, compressed, two-edged; leaves cordate-ovate, with a strong aromatic smell when rubbed; flowers large, in terminal cymes, yell...
-(10) Malva. Mallow
M. sylvestris: stem erect, 2-4 feet high; leaves kidney-shaped, with seven deep crenate lobes; stipules lanceolate; flowers large, purple, on axillary aggregated peduncles, the petals much longer than...
-(11) Althea
A. officinalis: stem 2-3 feet high, covered thoughout with soft, velvety pubescence; leaves soft on both sides, cordate or ovate, 3-5-lobed; peduncles axillary, many-flowered, shorter than the leaves;...
-(12) Ulex. Furze
U. nanus: stem procumbent, with the primary spines short, spreading, branched at their base only; flowers smaller and of a deeper golden yellow than the common Furze, the calyx nearly glabrous, with s...
-(14) Melilotus. Melilot
M. officinalis: annual or biennial; stem erect, 2-3 feet high; leaflets serrate, truncate, narrowly ovate; stipules setaceous, entire; flowers in lax lateral racemes, yellow; corolla twice as long as ...
-(15) Trifolium. Clover
* Flowers stalked, white. T. repens: stems creeping; leaflets obovate or obcordate, often with a dark spot at their base; flowers in roundish heads, white, the standard striated; peduncles axillary...
-(16) Sedum
S. Telephium: stem erect, 1-2 feet high; leaves large and broad, oval-oblong, dentate, smooth, rounded at the base, and sessile; flowers purple, handsome, in dense corymbs. - Orpine, or Live-long. - H...
-(17) Parnassia
P. palustris: leaves mostly radical, cordate, stalked; the stem-leaves amplexicaul; petals white, veined, with a short claw; filaments of the petaloid scales 9-13; glands of the scales yellow. - Wet, ...
-(18) Foeniculum. Fennel
F. vulgare: stem terete below, 3-4 feet high, completely filled with pith, branching; leaves decomposite, the segments elongate, capillary; umbels of many rays, concave, large; flowers yellow; whole h...
-(19) Silaus
S. pratensis: stem angular, 1-2 feet high; leaves mostly radical, those of the stem decreasing upwards, 3-4 times pinnate, the leaflets lanceolate, entire or bifid, the terminal tripartite; flowers pa...
-(20) Angelica
A. sylvestris: stem 2-3 feet high, slightly downy above, purplish; leaflets equal, ovate-lanceolate or ovate, often subcordate at the base, inciso-serrate not decurrent, lateral ones rather unequal at...
-(21) Archangelica
A. officinalis: stem 3-5 feet high, the foliage, stalks, and flowers bright green; leaves 2-3 feet wide, the leaflets ovate-lanceolate, all sessile, partly decurrent, the terminal one trifid; petioles...
-(22) Peucedanum
P. officinale: stem terete, striated, 2-3 feet high; leaves five times tripartite, the leaflets linear-acute, flaccid, very long, narrow; flowers yellow, in large umbels of twenty or more rays; genera...
-(23) Physospermum
P. eornubiense: stem 1-3 feet high, erect, round, striated, minutely scabrous, bearing a few small ternate leaves, with linear-lanceolate, entire segments, the uppermost represented by a barren lanceo...
-(24) Hedera. Ivy
H. Helix: shrubby, climbing by means of rootlike fibres; leaves coriaceous, ovate or cordate, and five-lobed with angular lobes, those of the flowering branches ovate-oblong, acute, entire; umbels sim...
-(25) Scabiosa
S. succisa: stems 1-2 feet high; leaves mostly from the root, stalked, ovate-oblong, entire, those of the stem with a few teeth; flowers deep blue, in roundish heads. - Devil's Bit. - Pastures and hea...
-(26) Anthemis
* Scales of the receptacle awl-shaped, acute. A. Cotula: annual; stem 1-2 feet high, branched, angular, furrowed; leaves bipinnatifid nearly glabrous, the lobes linear, acute, mostly entire; heads ...
-(27) Artemisia
* Receptacle hairy. A. Absinthium: stem bushy, 1-2 feet high; leaves silky, in many deep lanceolate-obtuse segments; heads drooping, hemispherical, in erect aggregate leafy panicles; floral-leaves ...
-(28) Tanacetum. Tansy
T. vulgare: stem 2-3 feet high; leaves bipinnatifid, the leaflets serrated; heads in a terminal corymb; florets golden yellow; whole plant powerfully scented. - Way-sides. Fl. August, September. ...
-(29) Senecio
* Florets all tubular, no ray. S. vulgaris: annual; stem 6-12 inches high, branching; leaves half-clasping, pinnatifid, the segments distant, oblong, obtuse, and together with the rachis and auricl...
-(30) Aster
A. Tripolium: stem 1-2 feet high, erect, hollow, leafy, many-flowered, smooth corymbose; leaves linear-lanceolate, fleshy, smooth; flower-heads large, with a yellow disk, and bright blue rays, the ray...
-(31) Chrysocoma
C. Linosyris: stem smooth, 1/2-1 foot high; leaves numerous, narrow-linear, entire; flower-heads yellow, in compact terminal corymbs. - Rocky cliffs, on the south and west coasts. Fl August, September...
-(32) Inula
I. Helenium: stem 3-4 feet high, round, furrowed, solid, leafy, branched above; leaves unequally dentate, downy beneath, cordate-ovate, acute, clasping, the root-leaves stalked elliptic-oblong; heads ...
-(33) Pulicaria
P. vulgaris: annual; stem 6-12 inches high, leafy, much branched, downy; leaves lanceolate, wavy, narrow at the base and somewhat clasping; heads small, lateral and terminal, hemispherical, with very ...
-(34) Onopordum
O. Acanthium: biennial; stem erect, many-headed, 4-5 feet high, woolly, with broad spinous wings, branched; leaves elliptic-oblong, woolly on both sides, sinuate, spiny, decur-rent; involucre nearly g...
-(35) Centaurea
* Involucral scales with a scarious, jagged, or pectinated, not decurrent appendage. C. nigra: stem 1-2 feet high; leaves scabrous, lanceolate, sinuate-dentate, the upper entire or nearly so, stem-...
-(36) Crepis
C. virens: annual; stem 1-3 feet high, subcorymbose; leaves very variable, lanceolate, remotely-dentate, runcinate or pinnatifid, the uppermost linear-arrow shaped, clasping, with flat margins; outer ...
-(37) Hieracium. Hawk-weed
H. vulgatum: stem erect, leafy, 1-3 feet high, with several leaves, the radical ones few, persistent, all oblong-lanceolate, narrowed into a footstalk, usually coarsely-toothed, the teeth all pointing...
-(38) Sonchus. Sow-thistle
S. arvensis: stem 3-4 feet high, simple, leafy; leaves long, acute, lanceolate, runcinate, finely-toothed, cordate at the base, the uppermost entire; heads corymbose, large; florets yellow; involucre ...
-(39) Arbutus
A. Unedo: an evergreen tree, with rough bark; leaves elliptic-lanceolate, serrated, coriaceous, glabrous; panicle terminal, nodding, pedicels glabrous, the flowers whitish, pendulous; fruit globular, ...
-(40) Cyclamen. Sow-bread
C. europaeum: tuberous; leaves long-stalked, heart-shaped, with shallow angular lobes, blotched with white above, purplish beneath; flowers pale rose-coloured or whitish, with two-horned spots at the ...
-(41) Grentiana. Gentian
* Throat of corolla fringed with long hairs. G. Amarella: annual, very variable in size and in the number of the flowers; stem 3-12 inches high, erect, square, much-branched; leaves sessile, ovate-...
-(43) Lamium
L. amplexicaule: annual; stem dwarf, decumbent; leaves roundish-cordate, obtuse, inciso-crenate, the lower ones stalked, the upper sessile, clasping; flowers in 1-3 compact semi-whorls, the corolla pu...
-(44) Chenopodium. Goose foot
C. polyspermum: annual; stem erect or procumbent; leaves ovate-elliptical, sessile, acute or obtuse; flowers in axillary leafless cymose or spicate racemes, small, inconspicuous. - Damp waste places. ...
-(45) Spiranthes. Lady's Tresses
S. autumnalis: tuberous; stem 4-6 inches high; radical leaves ovate-oblong, those of the stem bract-like; spike spiral, dense; flowers greenish-white, the column and its lid acute with an obtuse-ovate...
-(46) Scilla. Squill
S. autumnalis: bulbous; leaves linear, numerous; flowers purplish-blue, with a green line down the back, in perfection before the leaves appear, forming a slightly corymbose raceme on a scape 4-6 inch...
-(47) Colchicum
C. autumnale: tuberous; leaves flat, lanceolate, erect, a foot long, and often an inch broad, dark green, smooth; flowers several, bright purple, rising from the root with very long tubes, the germen ...
-(48) Eriocaulon
E. septangulare: aquatic: stem varying in height according to the depth of the water, usually with six or eight, rarely seven or ten angles, each corresponding with a bundle of vessels surrounding a c...
-(49) Leersia
L. oryzoides: stem 1-2 feet high, the leaves and sheaths very rough; panicle loose, with Wavy branches, usually more or less included in the leaf-sheaths; spikelets numerous, all turning in one direct...
-(50) Cynodon
C. Dactylon: roots creeping; stem with long branched scions, flowering stem 4-6 inches high, terminating in a single cluster of 3-5 digitate, spreading, many-flowered slender spikes; spikelets purplis...
-(51) Poa
P. annua: annual; stem ascending or procumbent; leaves flaccid, often wavy, broad; panicle spreading erect with a triangular outline; the branches patent or divaricated; spikelets ovate-oblong. - Very...
-(52) Molinia
M. coerulea: stem 1-2 feet high, the upper part naked; leaves long, linear, attenuated; panicle erect, elongate, narrow, the spikelets 1-3-flowered. The var. depauperata has the few spikelets one-flow...
-Winter Flowers And Fruits
The seasons came and went, and went and came, To teach men gratitude; and, as they passed, Grave warning of the lapse of time, that else Had stolen unheeded by. The gentle flowers Retired, and stoopi...
-Glossary
Abortive defective, barren. Abrupt appearing as if suddenly terminated or broken off. Accrescent persistent and increasing in size. Accrete having contiguous parts or organs natur...
-Glossary. Part 2
Aristate awned. Articulation a point where a discontinuity of tissue naturally takes place, without the appearance of its having been torn asunder, as where leaves fall from the stem. Arti...
-Glossary. Part 3
Bony hard and brittle, and of close texture, as the stones of plums, etc. Bracts the leaves more or less modified in form, which are seated on the peduncles and pedicels: frequently reduced t...
-Glossary. Part 4
Cone a dense aggregation of scalelike carpels, arranged round an axis, as in the fir tribe. Compressed flattened lengthwise, as in the pod of a pea, or in some stems. Conical approachin...
-Glossary. Part 5
Cyme an inflorescence in which numerous peduncles are given off in all directions from the summit of a branch, and these bear a terminal flower and secondary pedicels from below it, as in the commo...
-Glossary. Part 6
Endogen the same as a monocotyledon. Endogenous, possessing the internal structure of monocotyledons, that is with the newest cellular and vascular tissue of the stem produced within the older, and...
-Glossary. Part 7
Hair capillary expansions of cellular tissue, which coat the surface of various parts of many plants. Hastate shaped like the head of a halbert, the base diverging on each side into an acute ...
-Glossary. Part 8
Monopetalous having the corolla in one piece which is formed by the union of several petals. Mucronate, abruptly pointed by a sharp spinous process. Multifid, having deep and numerous subdivisions ...
-Glossary. Part 9
Palmatifid having the subdivisions of a simple organ (usually a leaf) arranged palmately. Panicle an inflorescence where the rachis either subdivides into several branches, or is furnished wi...
-Glossary. Part 10
Persistent remaining beyond the period when similar parts in other plants become mature and fall; not falling off but remaining green as the leaves of evergreens. Personate a form of monopeta...
-Glossary. Part 11
Prickle a more or less conical elevation of the substance of the bark, hard and sharp-pointed. Prismaiical approaching the form of a prism, presenting angles disposed longitudinally. Procu...
-Glossary. Part 12
Rosulate having the parts more or less laminated, and arranged in a whorl round an axis, in a manner somewhat resembling the disposition of the petals of a rose. Rotate wheel-shaped; having a...
-Glossary. Part 13
Siliculose bearing silicles. Silique Siliqua,an elongated,dry, bi-valvular, pod-like 'fruit, with a transverse internal membrane. Siliquose bearing siliqua. Silky having very long...
-Glossary. Part 14
Style the shaft which, in most flowers, is interposed between the stigma and ovary. Sub in composition, somewhat; implying a near approach to the condition indicated by the term with which it...
-Glossary. Part 15
Truncate terminating abruptly, as though shortened by the removal of the extremity. Tube the tubular portion formed by the cohesion of the subordinate parts composing a floral whorl. Tuber...
-Plate I. - Anemone nemorosa, Linnaeus
A. - Anemone nemorosa, Linnaeus: p. 6. 1. Cluster of young carpels. B. - Caltha palustris, Linnaeus: p. 7. 1. Cluster of young carpels. 2. One of the carpels, separate. 3. The full-grown c...
-Plate II. - Viola odorata, Linnaeus
A. - Viola odorata, Linnaeus: p. 8. 1. The stamens and pistil. 2. One of the spurred stamens, separate. 3. The pistil with its curved style. B. - Acer Pseudo-platanus, Linnaeus: p. 9. 1...
-Plate III. - Saxifraga granulata, Linnaeus
A. - Saxifraga granulata, Linnaeus: p. 11. 1. Two of the clustered tubers. 2. A flower, with the calyx and corolla removed. 3. The calyx surrounding the ovary, with its two styles. B. - Leont...
-Plate IV. - Menyanthes trifoliata, Linnaeus
A. - Menyanthes trifoliata, Linnaeus: p. 14. 1. A corolla laid open, showing the stamens attached to the inner fringed surface. 2. The pistil. 3. One of the capsules. B. - Primula vulgaris...
-Plate V. - Ulmus montana, Smith
A. - Ulmus montana, Smith: p. 16. 1. A perianth with stamens. 2. The pistil. 3. The winged seed. B. - Salix Caprea, Linnaeus: p. 17. 1. A branch, with the male catkins. 2. One of the...
-Plate VI. - Crocus vermis, Willdenow
A. - Crocus vermis, Willdenow: p. 4. 1. The base of the flower-tube, laid open in the upper part, showing the attachment of the stamens. 2. One of the stamens. 3. The three-cleft stigma. B...
-Plate VII. - Berberis vulgaris, Linnaeus
A. - Berberis vulgaris, Linnaeus: p. 80. 1. A flower, separate. 2. A petal, with its two glands. 3. A stamen, showing the valves of its anthers. 4. The pistil. 5. One of the fruits. ...
-Plate VIII. - Helianthemum vulgare, Gaertner
A. - Helianthemum vulgare, Gaertner: p. 83. 1. Back view of the calyx. 2. The pistil. B. - Drosera rotundifolia, Linnaeus: p. 93. 1. One of the gland-fringed leaves. 2. The stamens and ...
-Plate IX. - Dianthus plumarius, Linnaeus
A. - Dianthus plumarius, Linnaeus: p. 84. 1. One of the clawed petals. 2. The pistil, with its two curved styles. B. - Lychnis Githago, Lamarck: p. 85. 1. A petal with adherent stamens. 2....
-Plate X. - Hypericum pulchrum, Linnaeus
A. - Hypericum pulchrum, Linnaeus: p. 86. 1. One of the oblique petals. 2. One of the parcels of stamens. 3. The calyx surrounding the pistil, the petals and stamens being removed. B. - Geran...
-Plate XI. - Euonymus europaeus, Linnaeus
A. - Euonymus europaeus, Linnaeus: p. 90. 1. A flower. 2. A ripe fruit. B. - Rhamnus catharticus, Linnaeus: p. 90. 1. A staminate or barren flower. 2. A pistillate or fertile flower. ...
-Plate XII. - Lythrum Salicaria, Linnaeus
A. - Lythrum Salicaria, Linnaeus: p. 91. 1. A vertical section of a flower. 2. A capsule, bursting open. B. - Hippuris vulgaris, Linnaeus: p. 94. 1. A flower, consisting of the ovary and s...
-Plate XIII. - Cenanthe crocata, Linnaeus
A. - Cenanthe crocata, Linnaeus: p. 96. 1. A flower separated from the umbel. 2. One of the cylindrical fruits. 3. A transverse section of the fruit, showing the two carpels, and the ridges a...
-Plate XIV. - Lonicera Periclymenum, Linnaeus
A. - Lonicera Periclymenum, Linnaeus: p. 98. 1. One of the tubular two-lipped flowers. 2. A cluster of the berries. B. - Galium verum, Linnaeus: p. 99. 1. A flower complete. 2. The pist...
-Plate XV. - Carduus nutans, Linnaeus
A. - Carduus nutans, Linnaeus: p. 101. 1. One of the florets, separated from the capitule or head. B. - Campanula rotundifolia, Linnaeus: p. 102. 1. The anthers and pistil, showing the inferior ...
-Plate XVI. - Villarsia nymphseoides, Ventenat
A. - Villarsia nymphseoides, Ventenat: p. 104. 1. A portion of the throat of the corolla, showing the attachment of the stamens. 2. The pistil. B. - Polemonium coeruleum. Linnaeus: p. 105. ...
-Plate XVII. - Digitalis purpurea, Linnaeus
A. - Digitalis purpurea, Linnaeus: p. 111. 1. The didynamous stamens, separated from the corolla. 2. The pistil. 3. A transverse section of the ovary. B. - Orobanche minor, Sutton . p. 112. ...
-Plate XVIII. - Myosotis palustris, Withering
A. - Myosotis palustris, Withering: p. 107. 1. The corolla laid open, showing the stamens and the scaly appendages of the throat. 2. The pistil with its four-lobed ovary. B. - Pinguicula vulgari...
-Plate XIX. - Polygonum Bistorta, Linnaeus
1. A flower, separate. 2. The pistil with its three styles. B. - Aristolochia Clematitis, Linnaeus A. - Polygonum Bistorta, Linnaeus; p. 115. 1. A flower, separate. 2. The pistil with i...
-Plate XX. - Paris quadrifolia, Linnaeus
A. - Paris quadrifolia, Linnaeus: p. 119. 1. One of the awl-shaped stamens. 2. The pistil. 3. A ripe berry, with the persistent perianth. B. - Hydrocharis Morsus-ranae, Linnaeus: p. 119. 1...
-Plate XXL. - Butomus umbellatus, Linnaeus
A. - Butomus umbellatus, Linnaeus: p. 125. 1. A flower with the perianth removed. 2. One of the carpels. 3. A transverse section of the carpels. B. - Typha latifolia, Linnaeus: p. 121. 1. ...
-Plate XXII. - Arundo Phragmites, Linnaeus
A. - Arundo Phragmites, Linnaeus: p. 131. 1. One of the flowers, separate. B. - Bromus mollis, Linnaeus: p. 130. 1. One of the flowers, separate. 2. The pistil with its feathery styles. C. - ...
-Plate XXIII. - Scabiosa succisa, Linnaeus
A. - Scabiosa succisa, Linnaeus: p. 351. 1. A flower separated from the head. 2. The pistil. B. - Arbutus Unedo, Linnaeus: p. 352. 1. A stamen, showing its pores and awns. 2. The pistil...
-Plate XXIV. - Colchicum autumnale, Linnaeus
A. - Colchicum autumnale, Linnaeus: p. 355. 1. A stamen. 2. The pistil invested by the base of the perianth-tube. 3. The three-celled capsule. B. - Eriocaulon septangulare, Withering: p. 3...









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