The Bird's-eye Primrose (Primula farinosa) blooms in June and July, and is somewhat like an auricula; but the flower is small, seldom larger than the oxlip, of a pale purple tint, with a yellow centre; and the whole plant seems as if covered with a white meally powder.

The Winter Green (Trientalis Europoea) blooms in June on the mountain-side. The stem rises some three or four inches high above the oval-shaped rosette of delicately tinted green leaves, with its three or four little white flowers.

The Globe Flower (Trollius Europoeus), so well known in our gardens, loves the moist sward of the mountain-side: its tall stem and five cleft and subdivided leaves support its golden balls, which the Scotch call "the luckie gowan." The pale yellow Mountain Violet (Viola lutea) is common on the Welsh mountains; and so is the Rose-root (Sedum rhodiola), which takes its name from the odour of its woody root: its unbranched stem, some eight or ten inches high, bears a cluster of yellow flowers and flat and oblong leaves. On the mountain summits the small yellow flowers of the Procumbent Sibbaldia (Sibbaldia pro-cumbens) are often mistaken for those of the tor-mentil. Here also are found the rare Pipewort and the rarer Mountain Spiderwort, but we cannot linger over these. The Alpine Bistort (Polygonum vivipa-rum) is, however, abundant amongst the midsummer flowers: its narrow, green, grass-like leaves clasp the slender stem at its upper part, but the lower leaves are stalked. On the upper part of the stem a few flesh-coloured flowers appear. Amongst the lower flowers are a few red bulbs, by which the plant is propagated, a process not uncommon amongst Alpine plants whose seeds cannot ripen.

The lesser-flowered Cow-wheat {Melampyrum syl-vaticum) is of a much deeper yellow tinge than its woodland namesake, which it much resembles. It is frequently found in North Wales and in some parts of Scotland.

The white Mountain Avens (Dryas octopetala) loves to dwell in the fissures of the lower mountain lime stone. Its snow-white flowers have eight petals, a thick woody stem, much cut evergreen leaves, woolly on the under side. It is not an uncommon plant on the limestone crags of the United Kingdom, but it is particularly abundant on the limestone plateau on the south-west of the Bay of Galway. Later in the summer the botanist searches for the purple Sow-thistle (Mulgedium Alpinum), but it is very rare even amongst the crags of Lochnagar. The Alpine Saus-surea (Saussurea Alpina) is far more common: its large purple flowers look like thistle-plumes set in a long flower-cup; the slender leaves are woolly beneath and free from spines.

Near highland springs the little Alpine "Willow-herb (Epilobium Alpinum) may be found, and so may the Mountain Sorrel (Oxyria reniformis). The fleshy kidney-shaped acid leaves rise from the root. The pale yellow-tinted white flowers of the Scottish Asphodel (Tqfieldia palustris) is common on Irish and Scotch mountains. The small Alpine Gentian (Gentiana nivalis) shows its bluebell, cut into five segments, sometimes on the Highland summits.

As we cross the mountain pastures to the lower moorland, we may look for the Baldmoney of the Highlanders, the Spignel or Mew (Meum athamanti-cum), whose fine hairy leaflets cluster round the somewhat tall and ragged flower-stalk, which bears somewhat numerous umbels of yellow-tinted flowers. The plant is aromatic, and the root, which is shaped like a small carrot, is frequently chewed as a carminative. The Alpine Meadow Rue (Thalictrum Alpi-num) has leaves shaped like the garden rue, but much brighter in colour. Its slight stem droops gracefully when it bears its white blossoms with their somewhat conspicuous stamens. The Alpine Lady's Mantle (Alchemilla Alpina) is an elegant plant, with clusters of yellowish-green flowers. The root-leaves are beautifully divided into five-fingered leaflets, covered with lustrous white satin-like down. The Common Lady's Mantle (A. Vulgaris) is far more common, and may be found in numbers of our hilly pastures. Its flower is somewhat similar to the Alpine variety, but its leaves not only lack their beauty, but are in shape not unlike the common mallow.

The change in the calendar has turned the pretty Milkwort (Polygala vulgaris), the Rogation or procession flower of our ancestors, like many old spring flowers, into a summer flower, for it is seldom now in bloom until June. It grows but a few inches high but its racemes of reddish flowers, varying sometimes into purple and blue, are well known to the wanderers in heathy pastures. In Gerarde's time this plant was known as hedge hyssop, and sold as such. This little plant was used in garlands to decorate the windows during procession week.

Bladderwort. Arrowhead. Water Avens. Flowering Rush. Iris. Water Soldier. Frogbit.

1. Bladderwort. 2. Arrowhead. 3. Water Avens. 4. Flowering Rush. 5. Iris. 6. Water Soldier. 7. Frogbit.

The star-shaped pink flower with thin golden anthers of the Red Centaury (Mrythroea centaurium) are well known to the moorland wanderer. The flowers close in damp weather, and about three o'clock in the afternoon. Its bright green leaves and stem grow to above a foot high. It is a very bitter plant, and appears to have been used as a cure for indigestion.

The Petty Whin (Genista Anglica) blooms on its spiny stem about midsummer. The Hairy Greenwood (Genista pilosa) shows its yellow butterfly blossoms even earlier. Its folded ovate leaves are covered beneath with a silky down, and the whole shrub has a trailing habit, with a much-branched stem. The flower-spikes are only a few inches long. The Dyer's Broom (Genista tinctoria) loves a dry gravelly soil, and has an upright bearing, with lance-shaped leaves, and, though common on heaths, it has no objection to the woodlands. For ages the whole plant has been used for a yellow dye, and in connection with woad (Isatis) for the dyeing of wool green. An alkaline salt is obtained from its ashes.

The Heath Moorland And Mountain 44