Family, Buckthorn. Color, greenish. Calyx-tube, urn-like, crowned with 5 lobes, 5 short stamens standing between the lobes. No petals. Flowers, small, single or 2 or 3 together in the leaf-axils, staminate and pistillate, usually in different plants. Fruit, a 3-seeded, black, fleshy, pear-shaped drupe. Leaves, oval, prominently veined, acute at both ends, with short petioles, finely toothed, 2 to 4 inches long. June.

A low and spreading shrub, found in swamps from New Jersey to Illinois, Nebraska, Montana, and California, northward.

R. caroliniana.. - Flowers, perfect, in fives, single in the axils, or clustered, larger than the last, on peduncles, heaves, appearing before the flowers, oblong, pinnately veined, pointed at base, somewhat rounded at apex, petioled, broadly toothed. May and June.

A shrub or small tree, without thorns, in swamps or along river-banks, sometimes on dry hillsides, New Jersey to Virginia and Kentucky, south to Florida.