Salt air and sandy soil attract their own flowers. Among them are plants with stiff, unyielding foliage, of a stern and defying sort, which venture so close to the ocean that they are watered with its salt spray. Others, of a tenderer character, creep behind the protecting dunes, nestling in hollows, craving shelter from the fierce gales. Actual coast vegetation is sparse. There are no trees, and only a few hardy shrubs. The shore is joined to the country by a skirting fringe of pines, oaks, cedars, and locusts, beneath whose shade still other species are content to dwell.

The flowers grouped in this chapter may, some of them, like the Canadian burnet, have crept inland; but most are recognized as belonging to the seashore.

Some flowers that grow in salt marshes and pine barrens near the coast are here included.

Red-root (Lacnanthes tinctoria). Page 157. In sandy swamps near the coast. Ladies' Tresses (Spiranthes praecox). Page 54. Southern. Bayberry (Myrica carolinensis). Page 379. Sterile soil, not far from the coast. Pine woods. Smooth Alder (Alnus rugosa). Page 381. Golden Dock (Rumex persicarioides). Page 27. White Dock (R. pallidas). Page 26. On rocks, sea-beaches, and marshes. Seaside Knotweed (Polygonum maritimum). Page 58. (P. prolificum). Page 251.

Coast Blite (Chenopodium rubrum). Page 253. Salt marshes. Orach (Atriplex patula). Page 28. Sea Beach Atriplex (A. arenaria). Page 28. Glasswort. Samphire (Salicornia mucronata). Page 28. (S. europaea). Page 29. (S. ambigua). Page 29. Sea Blite (Sueda linearis). Page 29. Saltwort (Salsola Kali). Page 253. Sea Purslane (Sesuvium maritimum). Page 307. Sand Spurrey (Spergularia marina). Page 253,

Pearlwort (Sagina procumbens). Page 62.

Broad-leaved Sandwort (Arenaria lateriflora). Page 64.

Sea-beach Sandwort (A. peploidcs). Page 64.

Pine-barren Sandwort (A. caroliniana). Page 62. In sand.

Seaside Crowfoot (Ranunculus Cymbalaria). Page 163.

Sea Rocket (Cakile cdentula). Page 310. Also on the shores of the Great Lakes. Beach Plum (Primus maritima). Page 400. Dwarf or Sand Cherry (P. pumila). Page 401. Kidney Bean (Phaseolus polystachyus). Page 453. Thickets near the coast. Beach Pea (Lathyrus marithnus). Page 317. Milk Pea (Galactia regularis). Page 317. Sandy woods along the coast. Seaside Spurge (Euphorbia polygonifolia). Page 34. Sandy soil. (E. I pecacuanhae). Page 33.

Broom Crowberry (Corema Conradii). Page 455. Marsh Mallow (Althaea officinalis). Page 265. Salt marshes. (Kosteletzkya virginica). Page 267. In coast marshes. Hudsonia (Hudsonia ericoides). Page 430. Poverty Grass (H. tomentosa). Page 430. Pinweed (Lechea maritima). Page 267. Sandy soil. Primrose-leaved Violet (Viola primulifolia). Page 96. Scotch Lovage (Ligusticum scothicum). Page 106. Fetter Bush (Leucothoe racemosa). Page 410. Wet thickets near the coast. Sea Lavendar. Marsh Rosemary (Limonium carolinianum).

Page 324. Stilt marshes. Sea Milkwort (Glaux maritima). Page 278. North of Cape

Cod, along seashores. Sea Pink (Sabatia stellaris). Page 280. (S. gracilis). Page 280.

Large Marsh Pink (5. dodccandra). Page 280. Spiked Centaury (Centaurium spicatum). Page 282. Local. Few-flowered Milkweed (Asclepias lanceolata). Page 284. Red Milkweed (A. rubra). Page 284. Hyssop Skullcap (Scutellaria integrifolia). Page 335. Purple Gerardia (Gerardia purpurea). Page 289. In sand. Seaside Gerardia (G. maritima). Page 289. Chaff-seed (Schwalbea americana). Page 350. Moist sand. Yellow Rattle (Rhinanthus Crista-galli). Page 208. Cleavers. Goose Grass (Galium Aparine). Page 128. Clustered Bluets (Oldenlandia uniflora). Page 130. Wet soil. Beach Golden-rod (Solidago sempervirens). Page 222. Slender-leaved Golden-rod (S. tenuifolia). Page 222.

New York Aster (Aster novi-belgii). Page 362. One variety (litoreus) is found in salt marshes.

Salt Marsh Aster (A. tenuifolius). Page 362.

(A. subulatus). Page 362.

Salt Marsh Fleabane (Pluchea camphorata). Page 296. Salt marshes.

Groundsel Tree (Baccharis halimifolia). Page 425. Along marshes and sea-beaches.

Purple Cudweed (Gnaphalium purpureum). Page 143.

Hedgehog Burweed (Xanihium echinatum). Page 226. Lake-shores as well as seashores.

Yellow Thistle (Cirsium spinosissimum). Page 236. Poor soil, near the coast.