Family, Buckthorn. Color, white. heaves, alternate, 3-ribbed, on short petioles, about 2 inches long, toothed, the teeth tipped with a brown, glandular point; oblong or egg - shape, smooth, except along the veins, which are covered with rusty brown. Sepals, 5, white, incurved, rounded. Petals, 5 little hoods, mounted on slender claws. In the center of the flower is a fleshy disk, to which the sepals are attached. Stamens, 5. Pistil, 1, with 3-lobed stigma. Fruit, a 3-seeded, 3-celled berry, opening from the center and splitting into 3 carpels. Flowers, with white pedicels in small clusters, with long, common peduncles crowded along the upper branches from the axils of the leaves. They are small, and the effect of the umbel is light and feathery, a pure white. July.

Shrub low, 1 to 3 feet high, with pale green stems, which are striped with brown. Growing in dry, woodland places, along borders of roads, often well up a hillside. The leaves were used for tea during the American Revolution. The root-bark, a bright red color, has astringent qualities, and has been used in medicine. It furnishes a brown dye.

C. ovatas. - Leaves differ from the last species in being very narrow and broadly ovate or obtuse at the apex. Peduncles, short. Flowers, in clusters at the tips of leafless branches.

A rare species in the East, but commoner westward to Minnesota and Illinois, in dry or sandy soil.