§ I. Herbs with square stems, opposite leaves, flowers lip-shaped in whorls or cymes, four seeds or nutlets. N.O. Labiatae; exceptions: Lycopus (6) and Salvia (7). This order includes about 20 British genera. The following are examples;

No.

Botanical Name.

Common Name.

Season.

Situation.

Structure and Habit.

25

Mentha . .

Mint . . .

July-Sept.

Marshes

Fragrant herbs, many species and varieties.

26

Thymus .

Thyme

June-Aug.

Heaths .

Small, fragrant herbs. 2 species, common.

27

Lamium .

Dead Nettle .

-

Various

Leaves resemble nettle, but stingless.

i. album .

White D . .

March-Oct.

Wastes.

Flowers white, large, tube curved, perennial.

11. purpu-reum

Purple D .

Feb.-Oct.

Wastes . .

Rose-purple, a common weed, foetid, annual.

iii. Galeob-dolon

Archangel

May-June

Woods .

Flowers rich yellow, whorled, perennial.

28

Galeopsis.

Hemp Nettle

July-Oct.

Fields .

Four species, very similar to dead nettle.

29

Nepeta . .

Ground Ivy .

March-May

Wastes.

Creeping plant, blue flowers, leaves reniform.

Marrubium .

Horehound .

Aug.-Sept.

Wastes.

Erect, hoary, white flowers, woolly leaves.

31

Prunella .

Self heal

July-Aug.

Fields .

Violet flowers in dense spike, two leaves at base.

32

Scutellaria .

Skull-cap

July-Aug.

Streams

Two species, larger blue, smaller pink flowered.

§ 2. Herbs with irregular flowers, except Verbascum (35) and Veronica (3), usually showy, some parasitic, others poisonous. Seeds usually contained in a capsule. N.O. Scrophulariaceae and Orobanchaceae. These orders include nearly 20 British genera, of which the following are types:

33

Verbascum (64)

Mullein .

June-Sept.

Banks .

Tall spikes, yellow flowers. 6 species.

34

Veronica (3) .

Speedwell

Mar.-Sept.

Various

N.O. Scrophulariaceae, but with 2 stamens only.

35

Euphrasia

Eyebright

May-Sept.

Heaths .

White flowers with pretty spots, 6 inches high.

36

Rhinanthus .

Yellow Rattle

May-July

Fields . .

Yellow flowers, seeds rattle in ripe capsule.

37

Melampyrum.

Cow-wheat .

May-Aug.

Copses

Yellow blossoms four times as long as calyx.

38

Pedicularis .

Lousewort

April-Sept.

Marshes

Rose or crimson, sharp pointed seed vessel.

39

Scrophularia .

Figwort , .

April-Sept.

Marshes

Square shining stem, foetid ; flowers brown.

40

Digitalis

(Fig. 14)

Foxglove .

June-Sept.

Woods .

Purple, thimble-shaped, spotted flowers in spikes.

41

Antirrhinum.

Snapdragon .

July-Oct.

Fields .

Rose-purple, sepals longer than corolla.

42

Linaria

Toadflax .

-

-

3 trailing and 4 erect species.

i. cymbalaria

Ivy-leaved T.

May-Oct.

Walls . .

Purplish flowers, capsules buried in crevices.

ii. vulgaris .

Yellow T. .

July-Oct.

Fields .

Yellow, 2 feet high, like a Snapdragon.

43

Mimulus .

Musk . . .

July-Sept.

Streams

Handsome yellow flowers, stem erect, hollow.

44

Orobanche

Broomrape .

May-Sept.

Parasites .

Fleshy stems and leaves, turn black in drying.

45

Lathraea

Toothwort

April-May

Woods . .

Fleshy parasite under elm, hazel and other trees.