It is often easy to decide what a flower is by means of its habitat. Some plants can only live in water, others only by the seashore. It is always well to begin study near home, and as most of the young people who will use this little volume live in the country, we may take them, first, to look for the flowers which grow in

1. Hedgerows, Banks, And Ditches

Hedgerows, Banks, and Ditches Sweet violets appear early, as well as the celandine (167). Dead nettle, treacle mustard, adoxa (112), avens follow. Then come the barren strawberry and the real strawberry, the little geranium (131) known as herb robert, the campion, stitchwort, various plants called umbels (Group vi) because their flowers spread out like an umbrella, the bedstraws, agrimony (142), and mallow (175), to mention no others.

Fig. 5.   CAPER spurge.

Fig. 5. - Caper-Spurge.

2. The Meadows And Fields

In The Meadows and Fields we find buttercups and daisies, cowslips (52), geraniums (131), saffron, orchids (8) of different kinds, eyebright, various sorts of thistles, and many weeds. On Heaths, Downs, And Commons

3. Heaths, Downs, And Commons

Heaths, Downs, and Commons the foxglove (40) flourishes, the whortleberry and heather abound, the golden potentillas (147) are common. Many plants which grow freely in hedgerows belong also to Woodland And Forest

4. Woodland And Forest

Here we get various shrubs and climbing plants growing among the trees. Honeysuckle, bryony, deadly nightshade or Belladonna (Plate III), and the spurge laurel (113) are found. The curious spurges (Fig. 5, No. 144), several orchids (8), the hyacinth, foxglove, and giant bell-flower (59) also occur. Woodruff, madder, herb paris (111), and many other curious plants also haunt these sites. In the Marshes, Fens, And Bogs

5. Marshes, Fens, And Bogs

Marshes, Fens, and Bogs one is bewildered with riches. The marsh marigold (168), globe-flower (169), valerian, orchids, bog bean (60), bog myrtle, mealy primrose (52), grass of Parnassus (79), sundew (82), bog asphodel (93), yellow and purple loosestrifes, water violet (53), frog-bit (116), water lily (Fig. 17), cotton grass, water crowfoot, marsh cinquefoil (148), and gipsy wort are but a few.

Fig. 6.   Catkins of Hazel.

Fig. 6. - Catkins of Hazel.

Fig. 7. Dodder (Cuscuta).

Fig. 7.-Dodder (Cuscuta).

6. Lakes, Ponds, And Rivers

Lakes, Ponds, and Rivers yield some of the foregoing, along with others, such as the lobelia, flowering rush (Plate II), pond weeds, marestail, and others.

7. The Seashore And Estuary

The Seashore and Estuary have a delightful flora of their own. It is usually somewhat late, but includes sea holly, horned poppy (160), viper's bugloss (51), sea convolvulus (62), thrift, sea heath, campion, samphire, aster, some beautiful thistles, the pretty sea lavender (80), and the lovely little burnet rose (151). This must suffice as a general guide to the situations in which plants may be found. We turn now to the important subject of structure.