This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Juncus pelocarpus E. Meyer, Syn. Luz. 30. 1823.
Rootstock slender; stems 3'-2o' high, 1-5-leaved; basal leaves 2-4, with loose auriculate sheaths, mostly with slender terete blades seldom exceeding 5' in length; stem leaves 1-5, similar to the basal; inflorescence 4' in height or less; secondary panicles rarely produced from the axils of the upper leaves; panicle loose, with distant heads of 1 or sometimes 2 flowers; perianth 3/4"-i1 1/2" long, the parts linear-oblong, green to reddish-green, obtuse or the inner sometimes acute, the outer usually the shorter, all of them frequently modified into rudimentary leaves; stamens 6, about two-thirds as long as the perianth; anthers exceeding the filaments; style commonly 1/2" and stigmas 1" long; capsule subulate-linear, its slender beak exceeding the perianth, 1-celled; seed oblong to obovoid, 1/5"-1/4" long, reticulate in about 24 rows, the areolae smooth.
Newfoundland to New Jersey, Ontario and Minnesota.
Juncus subtilis E. Meyer, Syn. Luz. 31. 1823.
Tufted; stems filiform, creeping on mud, or floating, simple or branched, sometimes 5 dm. long, but usually much shorter, the leaves capillary, often fascicled at the nodes. Flowers only 1 or 2, axillary or terminal, short-peduncled or sessile; perianth about 1" long, its parts linear-oblong, reddish, obtuse or acutish, the outer shorter than the inner; stamens 6, shorter than the perianth; anthers about as long as the filaments; capsule trigonous, slender-beaked, a little longer than the perianth.
Newfoundland to Quebec and Maine.
J uncus bulbosus L. Sp. PI. 327. 1753.
Tufted, 2'-8' high; stems erect, or procumbent and rooting at the joints, usually bulbous. Leaves of two kinds, the basal mostly submersed, filiform, the caul-ine stouter, all with auriculate sheaths 10" long or less, the septa of the blades inconspicuous; panicle of 1-10 heads; heads top-shaped to hemispheric, 4-15-flowered, some of the flowers often transformed into tufts of small leaves; perianth 1 1/3"-1 1/2" long, its parts nearly equal, linear-lanceolate, obtuse, brown, or with a green midrib; stamens 3, shorter than the perianth; anthers a little shorter than the filaments; capsule narrowly oblong, obtuse, mucronate, slightly exceeding the perianth, brown above, 1-celled; seed narrowly oblong, about i" long, acute at base, obtuse and apiculate above, 25-30-ribbed.
Labrador, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. Europe.
Juncus militaris Bigel. Fl. Bost. Ed. 2, 139. 1824.
Stems 20-40 high, erect, stout, 1 1/2"~3" thick below, arising from a stout rootstock. Leaves of two kinds, the submersed borne in dense fascicles on the root-stock and developing filiform, nodose blades sometimes 20' long; basal leaves reduced to loose bladeless sheaths, sometimes 10' long; stem leaves 1 or 2, the lower with a long stout terete blade 1"-2" thick at the base, the upper, when present, reduced to a blade-less sheath; inflorescence 3'-6' high, its bracts with obsolete blades; heads top-shaped to semiglobose, 6-12-flowered; perianth 1 1/2"-1 3/4" long, its parts narrowly linear-subulate, the inner longer than the outer; stamens 6, nearly as long; anthers slightly exceeding the filaments; capsule ovoid, acuminate, beaked, 1-celled, few-seeded, about equalling perianth; seed obovoid, about i" long, reticulated in about 24 rows.
Shallow margins of lakes, ponds or streams, Nova Scotia to northern New York and Maryland.