This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
J uncus effusus L. Sp. PI. 326. 1753.
Plant 1 1/2°-4° high, densely tufted, erect. Rootstock stout, branching, proliferous; stem soft, merely striate beneath the inflorescence; basal leaf-blades reduced to liliform rudiments; inflorescence many-flowered, 1-4' high, in one form congested into a still smaller compact cluster; lowest bract of the inflorescence 2-10' long, much shorter than the stem; perianth 1"-1 1/2" long, its parts green, lanceolate, acuminate; stamens 3, the anthers shorter than the filaments; capsule obo-void, 3-celled, muticous, regularly dehiscent; seed 1/5"-1/4" in length, obliquely oblong, reticulate in about 16 longitudinal rows, the reticulations smooth and two or three times broader than long.
In swamps and moist places, nearly throughout North America, except the arid and high northern portions. Ascends to 3000 ft. in Virginia. Also in Europe and Asia. Called also Water, Round, Hard, Candle and Pin-rush.
Juncus conglomcratus L. Sp. PI. 326. 1753. Juncus Leersii Mars. Fl. Neu-Vorpom. 451. 1869.
Plant 1 -25 high, densely tufted, erect. Rootstock stout, with proliferous branches; stem distinctly ribbed just beneath the inflorescence; leaf-blades wanting or reduced to minute filiform rudiments; inflorescence congested, seldom more than 10" high; lowest bract of the inflorescence 2'-6' long, much shorter than the stem; perianth 1 1/4"-2" long, its parts green, lanceolate, acuminate; stamens 3, about two-thirds as long as the perianth; anthers shorter than the filaments; capsule nearly as long as the perianth, obovoid, obtuse or retuse at apex, tipped with the base of the style; seed 1/5"-1/4" in length, obliquely oblong, acute or abruptly apiculate at both ends, reticulate in about 16 longitudinal rows, the reticulations smooth and two or three times broader than long.
In sphagnum bogs, resembling in appearance specimens of j. effusus with congested inflorescence. Newfoundland. Nova Scotia, northern Europe and Asia. Pith-rush.
Juncus filiformis L. Sp. PI. 326. 1753.
Perennial, stems 4'-25' tall, erect, about 1/2" in diameter, arising from a creeping rootstock; basal leaves reduced to bladeless sheaths; involucral leaf usually longer than the stem; inflorescence rarely with more than 20 flowers or more than 1' high, commonly with less than 8 flowers and less than 10" high; perianth 1 1/4"-1 3/4" long, its parts nearly equal, green with hyaline margins, narrowly lanceolate, acute, or the inner obtuse; stamens 6, about half as long as the perianth; anthers shorter than the filaments; style very short; capsule obovoid, green, barely pointed, about three-fourths as long as the perianth, 3-celled; seed obliquely oblong, about i" long, pointed at either end, with an irregularly wrinkled coat, seldom developing reticulations.
Newfoundland and Labrador to British Columbia, Pennsylvania, Michigan, and in the Rocky Mountains to Utah and Colorado. Also in Europe and Asia.