Tall swamp or lowland ferns, the leaves in large crowns, long-stalked, the blades bipinnatifid or bipinnate, with regularly forked prominent veins, the fertile portions much contracted and devoid of chlorophyl, the short-stalked sporanges thin, reticulated, opening in halves, a few parallel thickened cells near the apex representing the rudimentary transverse ring. Spores copious, greenish. [From Osmunder, a Saxon name for the god Thor.]

Eight species, the following in North America. Type species: Osmunda regalis L.

Blades bipinnate, some of them fertile at the apex.

1.

0. regalis.

Herbaceous blades bipinnatifid.

Pinnae of sterile blade with a tuft of tomentum at the base; blades normally dimorphous.

2.

0. cinnamomea.

Pinnae of sterile blade lacking a tuft of tomentum at the base; blades normally fertile only

in the middle.

3.

0. Claytoniana.

1. Osmunda Regalis L. Royal Fern

Fig. 15

Osmunda regalis L. Sp. PI. 1065. 1753.

Rootstock stout, bearing a cluster of several long-stalked leaves, 2°-6° high, the apical pinnae fertile, contracted, forming an upright terminal panicle, the pinnules linear-cylindric, greenish before maturity, dark brown and withering with age. Sterile pinnae 6'-i2' long, 2'~4' wide, the pinnules oblong-ovate or lanceolate-oblong, sessile or slightly stalked, glabrous, finely serrulate, especially near the apex and occasionally crenate toward the truncate, oblique, or even cordate, base.

In low woods, swamps and marshes, Newfoundland to Florida, west to Mississippi, Nebraska and Saskatchewan. Also in Tropical America, Europe and Africa. May-July. Called also Royal Osmond. Bracken, Buckhorn-brake. King's-, flowering-, water-, tree-, snake- or ditch-fern. Bog-onion, Herb Christopher, Hartshorn-bush.

1 Osmunda Regalis L Royal Fern 151 Osmunda Regalis L Royal Fern 16

2. Osmunda Cinnamomea L. Cinnamon-Fern

Fig. 16

Osmunda cinnamomea L. Sp. PI. 1066. 1753.

Rootstock very large, widely creeping, bearing a circular cluster of sterile leaves with one or more fertile ones within. Stipes 1° or more long, clothed with ferruginous tomentum when young, glabrous with age. Sterile blades 1°-5° long, oblong-lanceolate, deeply bipinnatifid, the pinnae linear-lanceolate, deeply pinnatifid into oblong obtuse segments, the margins usually entire. Fertile blade contracted, bipinnate, soon withering; sporanges cinnamon-colored.

In wet woods, swamps and low grounds, Newfoundland to Minnesota, the Gulf states and New Mexico. Also in Mexico. Brazil, the West Indies and eastern Asia. Forms occur with leaves variously intermediate between the fertile arid sterile. May-June. Bread-root. Fiddle-heads. Swamp-brake.

2 Osmunda Cinnamomea L Cinnamon Fern 17

3. Osmunda Claytoniana L. Clayton's Fern

Fig. 17

Osmunda Claytoniana L. Sp. PI. 1066. 1753. Osmunda interrupta Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 273. 1803.

Rootstock stout, creeping; leaves 2°-6° long, loosely tomentose when young, glabrous with age, the outer ones usually sterile and spreading, the inner erect and usually fertile in the middle. Blades oblong-lanceolate, 1°-4° long; sterile pinnae oblong-lanceolate, deeply cleft into ovate-oblong close or slightly imbricate segments, the margins usually entire; fertile pinnae 2-5 pairs, fully pinnate, the cylindric divisions very close, greenish at first, dark brown, brittle and withering with age.

In swamps and moist woods, Newfoundland to Minnesota south to North Carolina, Kentucky and Missouri. Ascends to 5000 ft. in Virginia. Also in China and India. May-July. Interrupted- or Clay-ton's-flowering-fern.