This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
A forest tree, reaching a maximum height of about 1200 and a trunk diameter of 4 1/20, the branches spreading, the old bark rough in plates. Leaves some in 2's, some in 3's, slender, not stiff, dark green, 3-5' long, spreading when mature; fibro-vascular bundles 2; young sheaths 5"-8" long; cones lateral, oblong-conic, about 2' long, usually less than 1' thick when the scales are closed; scales thickened at the apex, marked with a prominent transverse ridge and armed with a slender small nearly straight early deciduous prickle.
In sandy soil, southern New York to Florida, west to Illinois, Kansas and Texas. Wood heavy, strong, orange; one of the most valuable timbers; weight per cubic foot 38 lbs. Also called Short-leaved or Short-shot Pine, and Bull, Carolina, Pitch, and Slash-pine. May-June.
Pinus pungens Lambert; Michx. f. Hist. Arb. Am. 1: 61.
pl. 5. 1810.
A tree with a maximum height of about 6o° and trunk diameter of 3 1/20, the branches spreading, the old rough bark in flakes. Leaves mostly in 2's, some in 3's, stout and stiff, light green, 2 1/2'-4' long, crowded on the twigs; fibro-vascular bundles 2; young sheaths 5"-8" long; cones lateral, usually clustered, long-persistent on the branches, ovoid, 3 1/2-5' long, 2'-3' thick while the scales are closed, nearly globular when these are expanded; scales very thick and woody, their ends with a large elevated transverse ridge, centrally tipped by a stout reflexed or spreading spine 2"-2i" long.
In woods, sometimes forming forests, western New Jersey and central Pennsylvania to Georgia and Tennessee. Ascends to 4000 ft. in North Carolina. Wood soft, weak, brittle, light brown; weight per cubic foot 31 lbs. May. Called also Prickly pine, Southern Mountain-pine.
Pinus Taeda L. Sp. PL 1000. 1753.
A large forest tree, reaching, under favorable conditions, a height of 1500 and a trunk diameter of 5°, the branches spreading, the bark thick and. rugged, flaky in age. Leaves in 3's (rarely some of them in 2's), slender, not stiff, light green, ascending or at length spreading, 6'-10' long; fibro-vascular bundles 2; sheaths 8"-12" long when young; cones lateral, spreading, oblong-conic, 3-5' long, 1'-1 1/2' thick before the scales open; scales thickened at the apex, the transverse ridge prominent, acute, tipped with a central short triangular reflexed-spreading spine.
Southern New Jersey to Florida and Texas, mostly near the coast, north through the Mississippi Valley to Arkansas. Wood not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, light brown; weight per cubic foot 34 lbs. Springs up in old fields or in clearings. Also called Frankincense, Sap, Torch, Slash, Swamp, Bastard, Long-straw or Indian-pine; Long-shucks; Foxtail, Shortleaf, and Rosemary pine. April-May.