This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Culms 1°-3° tall, erect, simple, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the intemodes; ligule very short, truncate; blades 2'-6' long, 1"-2 1/2" wide, rough, especially above; spike 2'-5' in length, narrow, slender, often somewhat flexuous; spikelets appressed to the rachis, single at each node, or the lower sometimes in pairs, 1-3-flow-ered; empty scales (occasionally 3) awl-shaped, 3-nerved, rough, 3"-4" long, bearing a slender straight rough awn, 3"-5" in length; flowering scales 3 1/2-5" long, rough toward the apex, bearing a slender straight awn 3" -5" long.
Man. Ed. 6, 673. 1890.
Culms 2°-5° tall, erect, simple, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths often shorter than the internodes, usually glabrous, rarely pubescent; ligule 1" long or less; blades 4'-12' long, 2"-8" wide, smooth beneath, sometimes rough above; spike 3' -8' in length, narrow, slender; spikelets appressed to the rachis, 3-6-flowered; empty scales narrowly lanceolate, 4"-6" long, acuminate or awn-pointed, rigid, 3-5-nerved; flowering scales smooth or slightly rough, s"-6" long, bearing a slender straight rough awn 6"-9" in length.
In moist soil, Ontario and Michigan to British Columbia, south to Colorado and California. June-Aug.
E. vulpinus Rydb. Bull. Torr. Club 36: 540. 1909.
Culms 1 1/2°-2 1/2° tall, erect, slender, tufted, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths smooth, usually shorter than the internodes; ligule a short membranous ring; blades erect, 4'-6' long, 1"-3" wide, acuminate, smooth beneath, scabrous on the margins and sometimes also sparsely so above; spike slender, long-exserted, 4'-6' long; spikelets usually in pairs, rarely single, somewhat crowded, appressed to the rachis, more or less compressed, 4-6-flowered; empty scales 4"-5" long, shorter than the spikelet, acuminate into a shorter awn; flowering scales 4"-5" long, acuminate, bearing a slender scabrous awn, 4"-5" long.
Bottom lands, western Nebraska. Admitted into first edition of this work as Agropyron Gmelini Scribn. & Sm.
Elymus arenarius L. Sp. PI. 83. 1753.
Culms 1 1/2°-8° tall, erect, simple, usually softly pubescent at the summit. Sheaths smooth and glabrous, often glaucous, those at the base overlapping, the upper shorter than the internodes; ligule very short; blades. 3-1o long or more, 11 /2"-5" wide, flat, or becoming involute, smooth beneath, rough above; spike 3'-10' in length, usually strict; spikelets 3-6-flowered, frequently glaucous; empty scales 8"-14" long, 3-5-nerved, acuminate, more or less villous; flowering scales 8"-10" long, acute or awn-pointed, 5-7-nerved, usually very villous.
On shores, Greenland and Labrador to the Northwest Territory and Alaska, Maine, New Hampshire, Lake Superior and Washington. Also in Europe and Asia. Narrow Bent, Rancheria-grass. Marram sea-grass. Summer.