This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
1833-37. Habenaria leucophaea A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 502. 1867.
B. leucophaea Farwell, Ann. Rep. Mich. Acad. Sci. 2: 42. 1901.
Stem stout, angled, 1 1/2°-2 1/2° high. Leaves lanceolate, 4'-8' long; spike 3'-$' long, very thick, loosely flowered; flowers large, white, fragrant, sometimes tinged with green; sepals broadly ovate; petals obovate, minutely cut toothed, about 3" long; lip 3-parted, 6"-7" long, the segments broadly wedge-shaped and copiously fringed; spur 1'-1 1/2 long, longer than the ovary; anther-sacs widely diverging at the base; caudicles long and slender; glands transversely oval; ovary often recurved.
On moist prairies, Nova Scotia to Minnesota, Kentucky, Louisiana and Nebraska. Western greenish-fringed orchis. July.
Orchis fimbriata Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 39. 1805. Not Dryand.
1789. Habenaria grandiflora Torr. Comp.'3i9. 1826. Orchis grandiflora Bigel. Fl. Bost. Ed. 2, 321. 1824. Habenaria fimbriata A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 503. 1867. B. grandiflora Rydb. in Britton, Man. 296. 1901.
Stem 1°-5° high. Leaves oval or lanceolate, 4-10' long, 10"-3' wide, obtuse, or the upper smaller and acute; raceme 3'-15' long, sometimes 2 1/2' thick, densely flowered; flowers lilac or purplish, sometimes white or nearly so, fragrant; upper sepal and petals erect, connivent; petals oblong or oblanceolate, more or less toothed, i' long; lip 3-parted, 1/2'-I broad, about V long, the segments broadly fan-shaped, copiously fringed to about the middle, anther-sacs divergent at the base; glands orbicular, turned inward; spur filiform, clavate, l'- l 1/2' long.
Stem rather slender, 1°-3° high. Leaves oval, elliptic or lanceolate, 2'-10' long, 8"~3' wide, the upper smaller; raceme 2'-6' long, 1'- 1 1/2' thick, loosely or densely several-many-flowered; flowers lilac, rarely white, fragrant; lower sepals ovate, obtuse, about 4" long, the upper one a little narrower; petals oblong or oblanceolate, toothed on the upper margin; lip 3-parted, 4"-6" broad, the segments fan-shaped and copiously fringed, the fringe of the middle segment shorter than that of the lateral ones; spur somewhat clavate at the apex, about 8" long, longer than the ovary.
In meadows, swamps and wet woods, Newfoundland to Minnesota, North Carolina and Tennessee. Pink-fringed or flaming-orchis. Soldier's-plume. July-Aug.
H. peramoena A. Gray, Am. Journ. Sci. 38: 310. 1840. B. peramoena Rydb. in Britton, Man. 297. 1901.
Stem 1°-2 1/2° high. Leaves elliptic or lanceolate, 4'-8' long, 1/2-1 1/2 wide, the upper gradually smaller; spike 2'-7' long, l'-2 1/2' thick, many-flowered; flowers showy, violet-purple; lateral sepals round-ovate, 3"-4" long, the upper one smaller; petals smaller, round-obovate, clawed, entire, or slightly erose; lip 7"-10" long, 3-parted, the segments fan-shaped, cut-toothed, not fringed, the middle one 2-lobed; spur about as long as the ovary, curved, clavate; anther-sacs widely divergent, little separated; glands orbicular, oblique.
In moist meadows, New Jersey to Illinois, Missouri, Virginia, Alabama and Tennessee. Great purple orchis. July-Aug.