This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Carex misandra R. Br. Suppl. Parry's Voy. 283. 1824.
Glabrous and smooth, culms very slender, erect, 1'-15' tall. Leaves 1"-1 1/2" wide, clustered at the base, usually much shorter than the culm, seldom over 2 1/2' long; bracts narrowly linear, sheathing, with colored sheaths, not overtopping the spikes; terminal spike often partially pistillate at base or summit, slender-stalked; pistillate spikes 1 to 3, filiform-stalked, 3"-7" long, about 2" thick, rather few-flowered, drooping or weakly erect; perigynia narrowly lanceolate, tapering and beaked at the apex, narrowed at the base, 2 1/4" long, 1/2" wide, ascending, dark brown, serrulate above, the orifice oblique, at length bidentate; scales oval, acutish, purple-black with narrow white margins, somewhat shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 3, rarely 2.
Throughout arctic America, extending south in the Rocky Mountains to the higher summits of Colorado. Also in arctic Europe and Asia. Summer.
Culms very slender, erect or somewhat reclining, rough above, 6'-2o' tall, little reddened at base, exceeded by leaves. Leaves light green, 1 1/4" wide, pubescent, especially on the sheaths, the uppermost usually 1 1/2-2' below spikes; spikes 2-5, very short-stalked, erect or nearly so, oblong-cylindric, densely many-flowered, 3"-10" long, 1 1/2"-2 1/2" in diameter, the terminal gynaecan-drous; lowest bract very slender, i" wide, twice exceeding spikes; perigynia 3-sided, obovoid, about 1" long, ascending, densely pubescent, few-nerved, green; beak-less, the orifice entire; scales oblong-ovate, the lower cuspidate by the excurrent midvein, scarious-margined, slightly shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 3.
9: 260. 1825. C. costellata Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 22: 223. 1895.
Similar to the preceeding species, but taller and more spreading; culms slender, 1 1/2°-2 1/2° long, strongly reddened at base, exceeding leaves. Leaves 1 1/2"-2" wide, pubescent, especially on the sheaths, shorter than the culm, the upper one usually 3/4'-1 1/4' below spikes; spikes 2-5, linear-cylindric, many-flowered, rather loose, 1/2-1 1/2 long, 1 1/2" in diameter, erect or slightly spreading, the terminal gynaecandrous, the lower one commonly filiform-stalked; lowest bract leaflet-like, 1/4"-1" wide, somewhat exceeding spikes; perigynia oblong-elliptic to rarely obovoid, densely pubescent, narrowed at each end, usually strongly several-ribbed, 1" long, rather more than 1/2" thick, beakless, the orifice entire; scales ovate, scarious-margined, acuminate or cuspidate, shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 3.
In woods, Maine and Ontario to Georgia and Kentucky. Ascends to 4000 ft. in North Carolina. June-Aug.