This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Carex triceps Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 170. 1803. Not
Light green, culms slender, rough above, erect or reclining, 6-3° high. Leaves 1"-2" wide, pubescent, at least on the sheaths, shorter than the culm, the lower bract similar, much exceeding the culm; spikes 2-5, oblong or oblong-cylindric, dense, erect, sessile or very nearly so, 3"-9" long, 2 1/2"-3 1/2" in diameter, usually clustered at the summit, the terminal one gynaecan-drous; perigynia oval or obovoid, flattened, not inflated, green or greenish-brown, lightly nerved, imbricated, slightly pubescent when young, glabrous when mature, 1" long, beakless and very rounded at apex, the orifice entire; scales ovate, scarious-margined, short-cuspidate to obtuse, rather shorter than the perigynia; achene elliptic-obovoid, its summit straight, but style often short-bent; stigmas 3.
Carex carolinana Schwein. Ann. Lye. 1: 67. 1824. Carex Smithii Porter; Olney, Car. Bor. Am. 2, name only.
1871. Not Tausch. 1821. C. triceps var. Smithii Bailey, Bot. Gaz. 13: 88. 1888.
Culms very slender, erect, rough above, i°-2i° tall. Leaves 1"-1 1/2" wide, rather dark green, glabrous, except on the sheaths, the upper and the similar but narrower bracts usually much overtopping the spikes; spikes 2-4, oblong, dense, sessile or nearly so, 4"-9" long, 2" in diameter, erect, clustered at the summit, the upper gynaecandrous; perigynia squarrose, obovoid, swollen, and orbicular in cross-section, 1" long, about i" in diameter, not imbricated, coarsely nerved, brown, glabrous at least when mature, pointed at apex, the orifice entire or emarginate; scales brown, ovate, mucronate; achene pyriform, bent at the summit or tipped with a bent style; stigmas 3.
In meadows. New Jersey and Pennsylvania to North Carolina and Texas. May-July.
C. hirsuta var. cuspidata Dewey, in Wood's Class-book,
Culms slender, erect, roughish above, 1 1/2°-2 1/2° tall. Leaves 1"-1 1/2" wide, glabrous or pubescent beneath, the sheaths pubescent, the upper and the similar but reduced bracts much overtopping the spikes; spikes 2 or 3, oblong or oblong-cylindric, dense, sessile or nearly so, 3"-10" long, 2 1/2"-4" in diameter, erect, clustered at the summit, the upper gynaecandrous; perigynia ascending, obovoid, orbicular in cross-section, 1 1/4"-1 1/2" long, swollen, not imbricated, about 3/4" in diameter, coarsely ribbed, green, glabrous when mature, pointed at apex, the orifice entire or emarginate; scales lanceolate, the middle and lower strongly rough-cuspidate, exceeding perigynia; achene obovoid, tipped with a bent style; stigmas 3.
In meadows, Rhode Island and New York to South Carolina and Oklahoma. May-July.