This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Glabrous, culms slender, tufted, sharply angled, smooth or strongly roughened, erect, 4- 2 1/2° tall. Leaves flat, 1"-2" wide, green, commonly shorter than the culm, the lower bract similar and usually overtopping the spikes; staminate spike usually solitary, frequently gynaccandrous; pistillate spikes 1-4, oblong, filiform-stalked and drooping or somewhat erect, 2"-10" long, 2"-4" in diameter; perigynia glaucous-green, flattened, 2-edged, 1 1/4"-1 1/2." long, over 1" wide, few-nerved, minutely granulate-papillose, orbicular or broadly ovate, essentially beakless, the orifice entire; scales lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, long-acuminate or awned, varying from dark green and brownish-tinged to purplish-brown, 1 1/2-2 times as long as the perigynia; stigmas 3.
In bogs, Newfoundland and Labrador to British Columbia, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and Utah. Also in Europe and Asia. Has been confused with Carex magel-lanica Lam. Ascends to 4600 ft. in the Adirondacks. Summer.
Carex littoralis Schwein. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1: 70. 1824.
Not Krock. 1814. Carex Barrattii Schwein. & Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1: 361.
Glabrous, pale green, culms erect, slender, smooth, 1°-3° tall, aphyllopodic and strongly filamentose at base. Leaves 1 1/2-2" wide, smooth, slightly glaucous, long-attenuate, usually much shorter than the culm; bracts not sheathing, the lower usually short and narrow, its auricles prominent, usually dark-tinged; staminate spikes 1-3, usually rather long-stalked; pistillate spikes 2-4, drooping or the upper ascending, slender-stalked, linear-cylindric, 1/2-2 long, 3" in diameter, mostly androgynous; perigynia ovoid or oval, dark at maturity, faintly few-nerved, 1 1/4"-1 1/2" long, slightly inflated and obscurely triangular, tipped with a minute entire beak; scales brown-purple with lighter margins, obtuse, usually shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 3.
In swamps. Connecticut to Pennsylvania and North Carolina. Mostly near the coast. May-June.
Carex Halleri Gunn. Fl. Norveg. n. 849. 1766-1772. Carex alpina Sw.; Lilj. Sv. Flora, Ed. 2, 26. 1798. Carex Vahlii Schk. Riedgr. 87. 1801.
Culms slender, phyllopodic, erect, leafy below the middle, 6-2° tall. Leaves roughish, 1/2"-1 1/2" wide, usually shorter than the culm; spikes 2-4 (commonly 3), clustered at the summit, the terminal ior2gynae-candrous, oblong or globose, 2"-5" long, closely 8-25-flowered, sessile or the lower short-peduncled; perigynia oval, orbicular or obovoid, light green, 1 1/4" long or less, tipped with a very short and minutely 2-toothed beak, nerveless or with a few very faint nerves, slightly shorter than the ovate black or purple-brown, light-margined, obtuse or acutish scales; style short; stigmas 3.
In rocky places, Greenland to Alaska, eastern Quebec, western Ontario, Lake Superior region and in the western mountains. Also in Europe and Asia. July-Aug.