This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Carex gynandra Schwein. Ann. Lye. N. Y. i: 70. 1824. Carex crinita var. gynandra Schwein. & Torr. Ann. Lye. N.
Similar to the following species, culms stout, 2°-5° tall. Leaves 2"-6" wide, their sheaths shortly rough-hispid; pistillate spikes l'-4" long, narrowly cylindric, stalked, drooping; perigynia obovoid to oval, ascending, compressed, less inflated, 1 1/2"-2" long, and about one-half as broad, round-tapering and minutely beaked, the orifice entire; scales lanceolate, tapering into the long awn, the center strongly 3-ribbed and the body brownish-tinged, more ascending, 2-4 times as long as the perigynia; stigmas 2.
In swamps, Newfoundland and Wisconsin, south to Georgia. Ascends to 5000 ft. in New Hampshire. June-Aug.
Carex crinita Lam. Encycl. 3: 393. 1789.
Carex crinita var. minor Boott, 111. Car. 1: 18. 1858.
Glabrous, culms stout, 3-angled, aphyllopodic and filamentous at base, rough or very nearly smooth, erect or somewhat recurving, 2°-5° tall, from stout rootstocks. Leaves flat, rough-margined, 11 /2"-5" wide, the upper sometimes overtopping the culm, the lowest very short and sheathing; staminate spikes 1 or 2, stalked, often pistillate at the base or in the middle; pistillate spikes 2-6, narrowly cylindric, densely very many-flowered, 1'-4 1/2 long, 3"-6" in diameter, all stalked, drooping and commonly secund; perigynia suborbicular or broadly obovoid, spreading, obtuse, 1"-1 3/4" long, 1/2"-" wide, slightly inflated, the walls thin, nerveless, abruptly tipped by the very short entire beak; scales abruptly long rough-cuspidate, the outer 1-3-ribbed and the body brownish-tinged, spreading, 2-6 times as long as the perigynia; stigmas 2.
In swamps and wet woods, Newfoundland to Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas. June-Aug.
Carex lacustris Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 306. 1805.
Culms generally stout and smooth, erect, 2°-3 1/2° tall, strongly purplish-tinged and filamentose at base, the lower sheaths not blade-bearing. Leaves elongated, nodulose, usually more or less scabrous, somewhat glaucous, 21/2"-6" wide, usually exceeding the culm; lower bract similar to the leaves, the upper reduced; staminate spikes 1-5, linear; pistillate spikes 2-5, cylindric, 1 1/2-4 long, about 5" in diameter, the upper erect, sessile or nearly so, the lower more or less stalked; perigynia narrowly ovoid, 3" long, 1 1/4" wide, firm, strongly nerved, scarcely inflated, ascending, tapering gradually into a 2-toothed beak, the teeth erect or slightly divergent, i" long; scales lanceolate or oblanceolate, long-aristate or acute, the lower longer, the upper equalling or shorter than the perigynia, purplish-tinged; stigmas 3.
In swamps, Newfoundland to James' Bay and Manitoba, south to Delaware, Iowa and Idaho. Great common-sedge. May-Aug.