This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Carcx lanuginosa Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 175. 1803.
C. filiformis var. latifolia Boeckl. Linnaea 41: 309. 1876.
Carex filiformis var. lanuginosa B.S.P. Prel. Cat. N. Y. 63.
1: 305. 1896.
Culm usually rather stouter than that of C. lasiocarpa and less reddened and filamentose at base, sharp-angled and rough above. Leaves and lower bracts elongated, flat, not involute, 1"-2 1/2" wide, more or less strongly nodulose, sometimes overtopping the culm; staminate spikes 1-3, distant, sometimes pistillate at the base; pistillate spikes 1-3, usually distant, sessile or the lower slender-stalked, cylindric, 5"-25" long, 2 1/2"~3 1/2" in diameter; perigynia like those of C. lasiocarpa, but usually rather broader; scales acuminate or aristate.
Culms slender but stiff, smooth, obtusely angled, 2°-3° tall, strongly reddened and filamentose at base. Leaves very narrow and attenuate, prolonged, involute, 1" wide or less, rough on the inrolled margins, not overtopping the culm; lower bract similar, often equalling the culm; upper bracts filiform; staminate spikes 1-3, commonly 2, distant; pistillate spikes 1-3, cylindric, 5"-25" long, about 3" in diameter, erect, sessile or the lower distant and short-peduncled; perigynia green, ascending, oval-ovoid, densely pubescent, obscurely nerved, about 1" in diameter, tapering into a short 2-toothed beak; scales ovate, membranous, sometimes purplish, acute or short-awned, shorter than or equalling the perigynia; stigmas 3.
In wet meadows and swamps, Newfoundland to British Columbia, south to New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Iowa and Minnesota. Ascends to 2000 ft. in the Adirondacks. Also in Europe. June-Aug.
Carex Houghtonii Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 413. 1836.
Long-stoloniferous, the culms rather stout, rough above, erect, 1°-2 1/2° tall, exceeding the leaves. Leaves and lowest bract 1 1/2"-3 1/2" wide, rough; upper bracts much shorter; staminate spikes 1-3, distant, sometimes pistillate at the base; pistillate spikes 2 or 3, oblong-cylindric, 1/2- 1 1/2' long, 3 1/2"-6" in diameter, erect, rather loosely 15-35-flowered, the upper sessile, the lower stalked; perigynia ovoid, 1 1/2 ' in diameter, light green, ascending, densely pubescent, prominently many-ribbed, narrowed into a short conspicuously 2-toothed beak; scales lanceolate, short -awned, hyaline-margined, somewhat shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 3.
In sandy or rocky soil. Nova Scotia to Saskatchewan, Athabasca, south to Maine, Ontario, Michigan and Minnesota. June-Sept.