This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Glabrous, yellow-green, culms slender, erect, 6-20' tall, smooth or slightly roughened on angles. Leaves 3/4"-1 1/4" wide, flat, shorter than the culm, the lower bract shorter than the culm, ascending, long-sheathing; staminate spike solitary, strongly peduncled; pistillate spikes 1-3, oblong, erect, widely separate, the lower strongly ex-ert-peduncled, the upper short exsert-pedun-cled, densely 15-40-flowered, 4"-10" long, 3 1/2"-5" thick; perigynia narrowly ovoid, yellowish-green, appressed-ascending, 2 1/2" long, 1" wide, finely several-nerved, contracted into a rough bidentate beak half as long as body; scales ovate, acute or obtuse, brown with conspicuous white scarious margins, somewhat shorter than perigynia; stigmas 3.
In wet places, Anticosti, Miquelon and probably Newfoundland; also collected near Boston, Mass. Related to the European Carex fulva Good, and probably mistaken for it, but apparently distinct. July-Sept.
Glabrous, bright green, culms stiff, erect, io'-2° tall. Leaves about 1' wide, strongly involute, erect, the lower bract similar, much exceeding the spikes, sheathing, the upper shorter, sometimes spreading; staminate spike sessile or nearly so, rarely pistillate at the base; pistillate spikes 1-3, erect, sessile and close together or the lowest short-stalked and distant, oblong, densely 15-50-flowered, 3 1/2"-10" long, 3"-4" thick; perigynia ovoid or ovoid-oblong, brown, 1 3/4" long, narrowed at the base, strongly several-ribbed and with thick walls, contracted into a short stout 2-toothed beak; scales ovate, acute, brown with a greenish midvein, shorter than the perigynia; stigmas 3.
Borders of salt meadows, Coney Island, N. Y., and near Norfolk, Va. Naturalized from Europe. June-Aug.
Carex Oederi Retz, Fl. Scand. Prodr. 179. 1779. Carex viridula Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 170. 1803. C. ftava var. viridula Bailey. Mem. Torr. Club 1:31. 1889. Carex flava var. cyperoides Marss. Fl. Neuroys. 537. 1869. Carex Oederi var. pumila (Coss. & Germ.) Fernald, Rhodora 8: 201. 1906.
Glabrous, bright green, culms slender, smooth, erect, 3-15' tall, often exceeded by the erect narrow basal leaves. Leaves 1 1/2" or less wide, the bracts similar, usually strictly erect and much overtopping the spikes; staminate spike sessile or short-peduncled; pistillate spikes 2-10, all close together and sessile or scattered and short-stalked, oblong-cylindric to globose-oblong, 2"-6" long, 2"- 31 /2" in diameter; perigynia ovoid-oval, 1"-1 1/2" long, strongly few-nerved, narrowed at the base, abruptly contracted into a 2-toothed beak scarcely one-half as long as the body; scales ovate, much shorter than the perigynia and about as wide; stigmas 3.
In bogs and on wet rocks, Newfoundland to Hudson Bay and the Northwest Territory, south to Maine, Pennsylvania. Minnesota, Utah and Washington. Summer.