This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Carex lepidocarpa Tausch, Flora 129. 1834.
1889. C. flava var. elatior Schlecht. Fl. Berol. 1: 477. 1823.
Glabrous, yellow-green, culms slender, stiff, erect, smooth or nearly so, 6-18' tall. Leaves 1 1/2" wide or less, flat, usually shorter than the culm, the lower bract elongated, spreading or ascending, sheathing; staminate spike solitary, sessile or peduncled; pistillate spikes 1-4, oblong to subglobose, erect, sessile and continuous or widely separate, the lower stalked, densely 15-35-flowered, 5 "-8" long, about 3 1/2" thick (extremes 3"-4i"); perigynia ovoid, yellow, spreading or the lower retrorse when mature, 2" long, few-nerved, abruptly contracted into a subulate 2-toothed beak which is shorter than the body; scales ovate to lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 1/3-1/2 length of perigynia, usually inconspicuous at maturity; stigmas 3.
Carex flava L. Sp. PI. 975. 1753.
Glabrous, yellow-green, culms slender but stiff and erect, smooth or nearly so, 6'-2° tall. Leaves 1"-2 1/2" wide, flat, the lower shorter than or sometimes exceeding the culm, the lower bract elongated, spreading or ascending, sheathing; staminate spike solitary, stalked or sessile; pistillate spikes 1-4, globose-oblong, erect, varying from sessile and close together to strongly separate and the lower strongly stalked, densely 15-35-flowered, 3"-9" long, about 5" thick (extremes 4 1/2"-6"); perigynia narrowly ovoid, yellow, and spreading in all directions when mature, 2 1/2"-3" long, strongly several-nerved, the subulate 2-toothed deflexed beak as long as the body or longer; scales lanceolate or ovate, acute to short-cuspidate, 1/3-1/2 length of perigynia, conspicuous at maturity; stigmas 3.
1791, nor Schum. 1801. Carex Collinsii Nutt. Gen. 2: 205. 1818. Carex Michauxii Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. 10: 273. 1826. Not Schwein. 1824.
Caespitose, glabrous, culms slender, weak, erect or reclining, 6'-2° long. Leaves narrow, soft, the broadest about 21/2" wide; staminate spike terminal, short- or long-stalked; pistillate spikes 2-4, distant, 2-8-flowered,short-stalked, or the stalk of the lowest sometimes 1 1/2 long; bracts similar to the upper leaves, elongated, strongly sheathing; perigynia light green, scarcely inflated, subulate, 4"-7" long, tapering from below the middle into an almost filiform beak, faintly many-nerved, horizontal or reflexed when mature, easily detached from rachis, about 3 times as long as the hyaline lanceolate-acuminate persistent scale, its teeth very strongly reflexed at maturity; achenes linear-oblong; stigmas 3.
In bogs, Rhode Island to eastern Pennsylvania, south to South Carolina and Georgia. Ascends to 2000 ft. in Pennsylvania. Attributed to Canada by Michaux. June-Aug.