This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Car ex Schweinitzii Dewey; Schwein. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1: 71. 1824.
Glabrous, light green, culm erect, roughish above, 1°-2 1/2° tall, from long-creeping rootstocks. Leaves elongated, 2 1/2"-5" wide, the lower ones and the similar bracts commonly overtopping the culm, those of the culm mostly shorter; staminate spike solitary or sometimes 2, slender-peduncled, the scales scarcely awned; pistillate spikes 2-5, ascending, linear-cylin-dric, not very densely flowered, 1 1/2'-3 1/2' long, about 4"-7" thick, the upper usually sessile, the lower stalked; perigynia light green, thin, somewhat inflated, ovoid-conic or oblong, contracted into the subulate, 2-toothed beak, 2 1/2"-3 1/2" long and 1" in diameter, ascending, rather prominently several-nerved, equalling or the upper longer than the broad-based, somewhat rough-awned or scabrous scale; stigmas 3.
Carex hystricina Muhl.; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 282, 1805.
C. Cooleyi Dew. Am. Journ. Sci. 48: 144. 1845.
Caespitose, glabrous, light green, culms slender, erect, rough above, 1°-3° tall, strongly reddened and occasionally scabrous on lower sheaths. Leaves elongated, scabrous, 1 1/2"- 4" wide, the upper and the similar bracts overtopping the culm; staminate spike slender-stalked, the scales rough-awned; pistillate spikes 1- 4, oblong or oblong-cylindric, densely many-flowered, 1/2'- 2 1/2 long, 5"-7" in diameter, the upper sessile or nearly so, the lower slender-stalked and spreading or drooping; perigynia greenish, ascending, somewhat inflated, ovoid-conic, 2 1/2"-3 1/2" long, strongly 15-20-nerved, contracted into the subulate 2-toothed beak, equalling or the upper longer than the narrow rough-awned scales; achene obovoid; stigmas 3.
In swamps and low meadows, Newfoundland to Alberta, south to Georgia, New Mexico and Arizona. June-Aug.
Carex Pseudo-Cyperus L. Sp. PI. 978. 1753.
Glabrous, culms rather stout, rough on the sharp angles, at least above, 2°-3i° high. Leaves elongated, rough on the margins, nodulose, 2"-5" wide, the upper and the similar bracts overtopping the culm; staminate spike short-stalked, the scales rough-awned; pistillate spikes 2-5, linear-cylindric, densely many-flowered, all slender-stalked and spreading or drooping, 1'-2 1/2' long, 4"-6" in diameter; perigynia rigid, short-stipitate, scarcely inflated, lanceolate, prominently and closely many-ribbed, somewhat flattened and triangular, at length reflexed, tapering into a short 2-toothed beak, the short teeth slightly spreading; scales linear with a broad base, rough-awned, about equalling the perigynia; stigmas 3.
In bogs. Nova Scotia to Saskatchewan, south to Connecticut, New York and Michigan. Also in Europe and Asia. June-Aug.