This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
C. furcata Ell. Bot. S. C. and Ga. 2: 552. 1824. Not
141. 1867. Carex Pseudo-Cyperus var. americana Hochst.; Bailey,
Mem. Torr. Club 1: 54. 1889.
Similar to the preceding species, culms commonly stouter, sometimes 50 high, the leaves 3"-7" wide. Staminate spike short-stalked, the scales rough-awned; pistillate spikes 2-6, usually 3-5, stalked or the uppermost nearly sessile, all spreading or drooping, stouter and bristly, 6"-7" in diameter; perigynia lanceolate, rigid, scarcely inflated, somewhat flattened and triangular, strongly reflexed when mature, short-stipitate, tapering into a slender, prominently 2-toothed beak, the teeth subulate and recurved-spreading; scales mostly shorter than the perigynia, very rough-awned; stigmas 3.
In swamps and along the borders of ponds, Nova Scotia to Washington, south to Florida, Louisiana and California. May-Oct.
Carex stenolepis Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 420. 1836. Not
Less. 1831. Carex Frankii Kunth, Enum. 2: 498. 1837.
Glabrous, much tufted, culms stout, smooth, erect, very leafy, 1°-2 1/2° tall. Leaves elongated, roughish, 1 1/2"-4" wide, the upper ones and especially the similar bracts overtopping the culm; staminate spike stalked or nearly sessile, occasionally pistillate at the summit, often small and inconspicuous; pistillate spikes 3-6, exceedingly dense, cylindric, erect, 1/2'- 1 1/2 long, about 4" in diameter, the upper nearly or quite sessile, the lower slender-stalked; perigynia green, slightly inflated, 2" long, about 1" in diameter, few-nerved, obconic, with a depressed summit from which arises the subulate 2-toothed beak; scales linear-subulate, very rough, longer than the perigynia; stigmas 3.
Carex squarrosa L. Sp. PI. 973. 1753.
Glabrous, culms slender, erect, rough above on the angles, 2°-3° tall. Leaves elongated, 1 1/2"-3" wide, rough-margined, the upper somewhat overtopping the culm; bracts similar; spikes 1-3, generally 1, erect, stalked, oval, exceedingly dense, the pistillate portion 7"-15" long, 6"-11" in diameter, the upper one club-shaped, staminate at the base or sometimes for one-half its length or more; perigynia yellowish green, becoming tawny, squarrose or the lowest re-flexed, somewhat inflated but firm, obovoid, about 1 1/2" in diameter, few-nerved, truncately contracted into the subulate minutely 2-toothed beak, twice as long as the scarious, lanceolate acuminate or awn-tipped scales; achene linear-oblong, 1 1/2" long, tapering into the stout, strongly flexuous style; stigmas 3.
In swamps and bogs, Ontario to Connecticut, Michigan, Nebraska, Georgia, Louisiana and Arkansas. June-Sept.