This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Cyperus strigosus L. Sp. PI. 47. 1753.
C. strigosus capitatus Boeckl. Linnaea 36: 347.
13: 212. 1886. C. strigosus robustior Kunth, Enum. 2: 88. 1837.
Perennial by basal tuber-like corms, culm rather stout, 1°-3° tall. Leaves somewhat rough-margined, 2" - 3" wide, the longer ones of the involucre much exceeding the umbel; umbel several-rayed, compound or nearly simple, some of the primary rays often 4'-6' long, their sheaths terminating in 2 bristles; involucels setaceous; heads oblong to sub-globose; spikelets flat, linear, 3"-I2' long, 1" wide or less, 7-25-flowered, separating from the axis at maturity; scales straw-colored, oblong-lanceolate, subacute, strongly several-nerved, appressed, or at length somewhat spreading; stamens 3; style 3-cleft; achene linear-oblong, 3-angled, acute, about one-third as long as the scale.
In moist meadows, swamps or along streams, Maine and Ontario to Minnesota, Florida and Texas. Lank galingale. Nut-grass. Ground-moss. Contains several races, differing in size, length of rays, length and width of spikelets. Aug.-Oct.
C. refractus Engelm.; Boeckl. Linnaea 36: 369. 1869-70.
Perennial by tuber-like conns, culm stout, smooth, 1°-3° tall. Leaves 2 1/2"-4" wide, rough-margined, elongated; umbel 6-13-rayed, usually compound, the longer rays sometimes 8' long, their sheaths terminating in 1 or 2 short teeth; involucels setaceous; raylets filiform; spikelets very narrowly linear, loosely spicate, acute, Flattish, 5"-12" long, 1/2" thick, 3-6-flowered, the upper spreading, the lower reflexed; scales yellowish-green, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, closely appressed, 9-11-nerved, thin; stamens 3; style 3-cleft, its branches much exserted; achene narrowly linear, obtuse, apicu-late, about 5 times as long as thick, and one-half as long as the scale.
Scirpus retrofractus L. Sp. PI. 50. 1753.
Cyperus retrofractus Torr.; A. Gray, Man. 519. 1848.
Perennial by tuber-like corms, culm slender, rough-puberulent, at least above, mostly longer than the pu-berulent leaves, 1°-3° tall. Leaves 1 1/2"-2 1/2" wide, those of the involucre 4-7, the longer not greatly exceeding the umbel; umbel simple; rays very slender, nearly erect, or spreading, 2'-6' long, their sheaths 2-toothed; heads oblong or obovoid; spikelets linear-subulate, 3"-6" long, about i" thick, 1-3-flowered, all soon strongly reflexed; flowering scales lanceolate, acute, the upper one subulate, all strongly several-nerved; stamens 3; style 3-cleft; achene linear, 3-angled, obtuse, apiculate, two-thirds as long as the scale.
In dry, sandy soil, southern New Jersey to Florida, west to Kentucky, Missouri and Texas. July-Sept.