This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
[M.ACLURA Nutt. Gen. 2: 233. 1818.]
A tree, with milky sap, thick entire dark green alternate petioled pinnately veined leaves, stout axillary spines, caducous stipules and dioecious axillary flowers, the staminate racemose, the pistillate capitate. Staminate flowers with a 4-parted calyx, its segments valvate, and 4 stamens, the filaments inflexed in the bud, straightening and somewhat exserted in anthesis. Pistillate flowers with a 4-cleft calyx enclosing the sessile ovary, and a filiform simple long-exserted style, the calyces becoming fleshy and enlarged in fruit, densely aggregated into a large globular head. Endosperm none; embryo curved. [Name Greek, signifying bow-wood.]
A monotypic genus of the south-central United States; its name originally printed, by typographical error, Ioxylon.
T. pomiferum Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 2:118. 1817. Maclura aurantiaca Nutt. Gen. 2: 234. 1818. Madura pomifera Schneider, Handb. Laubh. 1: 806. 1906.
A tree with ridged brown bark, and spreading branches; maximum height about 6o°, and trunk diameter 2 1/2°; foliage puberulent when young, glabrous when mature. Leaves ovate, ovate-lanceolate or ovate-oblong, glossy, entire, 3'-6' long, apex acuminate, base obtuse, truncate or subcordate; petioles 1/2'-2' long; axillary spines straight, sometimes 3' long; staminate racemes 1/2'-l' long, usually numerous; flowers about 1" broad; head of pistillate flowers peduncled, pendulous, about 1' in diameter, ripening into a hard yellowish tubercled syncarp 2'-6' in diameter.
In rich soil, Missouri and Kansas to Texas. Wood hard, very strong, dense, durable; color bright orange; weight per cubic foot 48 lbs. Much planted for hedges and occasionally spontaneous in the East. May-June. Fruit ripe Oct.-Nov. Bow- or yellow-wood. Hedge-plant. Osage. Osage-apple.