This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Trillium rhumboidcum var. grandiflorum Michx. Fl. Bor.
Am. 1: 216. 1803. Trillium grandiflorum Salisb. Par. Lond. 1: pi. 1. 1805.
Stems usually stout, 8-18 high. Leaves broadly rhombic-ovate or rhombic-oval, 2 1/2'-6' long, acuminate at the apex, narrowed to the sessile or nearly sessile base; peduncle erect or somewhat inclined, 1 1/2'-3' long; sepals lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate but sometimes bluntish, 1'-2' long, spreading; petals erect-spreading, oblanceolate; obovate or rarely ovate-oblong, obtuse or cuspidate, strongly veined, white or pink, thin, longer than the sepals; anthers about 1/2' long, longer than the filaments; styles slender, 3"-4" long, ascending or erect; berry globose, black, slightly 6-lobed, 8"-12" in diameter.
A monstrous form, with two long-petioled leaves, was collected by Dr. Pitcher in Michigan.
Trillium erectum L. Sp. PI. 340. 1753.
Stem stout, 8'-16' high. Leaves very broadly rhombic, 3'-7' long, often as wide or wider, sessile, acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base; peduncle 1 1/4-4' long, erect, or nearly so; sepals lanceolate, acuminate, spreading, 1/2'-1 1/2' long; petals lanceolate or ovate, acute or acutish, spreading, equalling the sepals or a little longer, dark purple, pink, greenish or white; anthers longer than the filaments, sometimes twice as long, exceeding the stigmas; ovary purple; styles short, spreading or recurved; berry ovoid, somewhat 6-lobed, reddish, 8"-12" long.
In woods, Nova Scotia to Ontario, south to North Carolina and Tennessee. Flowers unpleasantly scented. Indian balm. Red or purple trillium, or wake-robin. Bath-, Beth- or Squaw-flower. Beth- or bumble-bee-root. Lamb's-quarters. Nosebleed. Daffy-down-dilly. Red benjamin. Shamrock. True-love. Orange-blossom. April-June.
T. erectum var. declinatum A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 523- 1878.
Stem stout, 1 1/4° high or less. Leaves broadly rhombic, 3'-5' long and about as wide as long, short-acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base; peduncle horizontal or declined, 1 1/2'-2 1/2' long; petals oblong-ovate, white, about as long as the sepals; filaments 1"-2 1/2" long, not more than half as long as the anthers; ovary white or pinkish; stigmas nearly sessile.
Woods, Ohio to Michigan, Minnesota and Missouri. April-June.
Trillium cernuum L. Sp. PI. 339. 1753.
Stem usually slender, 8-20' high. Leaves similar to those of the preceding species, broadly rhombic, acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, sessile, or with the petioles 1"-2" long; peduncles 1/2'-1 1/4' long, recurved beneath the leaves, the flower drooping; sepals lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 6"-12" long; petals white or pink, ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, rolled backward, wavy-margined, equalling the sepals, or a little longer; anthers about as long as the subulate filaments; ovary whitish; styles rather stout, recurved; berry ovoid, red-purple, pendulous, 8"-10" long.
Trillium undulatum Willd. Neue Schrift. Gesell. Nat. Fr.
Berlin 3: 422. 1801. Trillium erythrocarpiim Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 216. 1803.
Stem usually slender, 8'-2° high. Leaves ovate, 3'-8' long, 2'-5' wide, petioled, long-acuminate at the apex, obtuse or rounded at the base; petioles 2"-10" long; flowers peduncled, erect or somewhat inclined, l'-2 1/2' long.; sepals lanceolate, acuminate, 9"-15" long, spreading; petals ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate or acute, white with purple veins or stripes, thin, longer than the sepals, widely spreading, wavy-margined; anthers about equalling the filaments; styles slender; berry ovoid, obtuse, bluntly 3-angled, bright red, shining, 6"-10" in diameter.
In woods, Nova Scotia to Ontario and Wisconsin, south to Georgia and Missouri. Ascends to 5600 ft. in Virginia. Wild pepper. Sarah. Benjamin. May-June.